Deborah Isocrono, Pier Luigi Nimis, Sonia Ravera
Apparatus of images: Andrea Moro - Software and databases: Stefano Martellos

The present key, prepared for an online workshop organized by the Italian Lichen Society in April 2021, includes species of Arthopyrenia and Naetrocymbe known to occur in Italy, plus Mycoporum antecellens, which was previously included into Arthopyrenia, for a total of 21 species (see Nimis 2016, Nimis & al. 2018). The two main genera are very poorly known in Italy: in spite of the recent description of 3 species from the country (Ravera 2006, Puntillo & Ravera 2013), several species described by Italian authors of the XIX Century, such as A. cembricola (Anzi) Lettau, A. cinerescens A. Massal., A. molinii Beltr., A. parolinii Beltr., etc.) still await a critical study, and are not included in the key.
Arthopyrenia A. Massal. resembles Anisomeridium and Strigula in many aspects, differing mostly in subtle characters such as hamathecium structure and micro- and macroconidia, which are not always present. The family Arthopyreniaceae has been recently redefined within the Pleosporales, to include only a small number of non-lichenised, extratropical species. Several genera traditionally treated in Arthopyreniaceae have been excluded from this family and the bulk of tropical, lichenised species previously assigned to Arthopyrenia belong in Trypetheliaceae (Hyde & al. 2013, Nelsen & al. 2014), so that several nomenclatural changes are to be expected.
Naetrocymbe Körb., with c. 12 species, includes species which are usually non-lichenised, characterised by short-celled paraphyses with refractive bodies near the septa, obpyriform asci with a distinctive apical region lacking a nasse and short, rod-shaped microconidia; the genus has a mainly temperate/boreal distribution.
Arthopyrenia and Naetrocymbe, in spite of their overall similarity, are presently included in two different families within the order Pleosporales (Arthopyreniaceae and Naetrocymbaceae, see Harris 1995, Jaklitsch & al. 2016).
The species were monographed by Keissler (1938) for Central Europe. Several species were critically revised by Riedl (1963, 1969, 1977) and Harris (1995). A general key to European species was provided by Clauzade & Roux (1985). Swedish species were treated by Foucard (1992). British species were treated by Coppins (1988); good descriptions and a key to British species are in Orange (2013).


Clauzade G., Roux C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita determinlibro. Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N. Ser., N. Spec. 7. Royan, 893 pp.
Coppins, B.J. 1988. Notes on the genus Arthopyrenia in the British Isles. Lichenologist, 20: 305-325.
Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Liu J.-K., Ariyawansa H., Boehm E. & al. 2013. Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers., 63: 1-313.
Keissler K. von 1938. Pyrenulaceae, Mycoporaceae, Coniocarpineae. In: Rabenhorst G L: Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 2nd, IX, Die Flechten, Abt. 1, 2. Gebr. Borntraeger, Leipzig, pp. 1-846.
Foucard T. 1992. Notes on the corticolous Arthopyrenia-species in Sweden. Graphis Scripta, 4, 2: 49-60.
Harris R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens, including the 10ø Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Publ. by the Author, Bronx, N.Y., 192 pp.
Nelsen M.P., Lücking R., Aptroot A., Andrew C.J., Cáceres M.E.S. & al. 2014. Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and genus-level classification within the fungal family Trypetheliaceae. (Dothideomycetes: Ascomycota). Taxon, 63: 974-992.
Nimis P.L. 2016. The lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. EUT, Trieste, 740 pp.
Nimis P.L., Hafellner J., Roux C., Clerc P., Mayrhofer H., Martellos S., Bilovitz P.O. 2018. The Lichens of the Alps. An Annotated Catalogue. Mycokeys, 31: 1-634.
Orange A. 2013. British and other Pyrenocarpous Lichens. Vers. II. August 2013.
Puntillo D., Ravera S. 2013. Naetrocymbe mori-albae, a new species from Calabria (southern Italy). Fl. Medit., 23: 5-9.
Ravera S. 2006. Two new species of Arthopyrenia from Italy. Lichenologist, 38, 1: 21-26.
Riedl H. 1963. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo I. Sydowia, 16: 263-274.
Riedl H. 1969. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo II. Sydowia, 23: 230-241.
Riedl H. 1977. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo III. Zur Nomenklatur und Systematik von Arthopyrenia punctiformis auct. Sydowia, 29: 115-138.

Last modified: April, 27, 2021

Project Dryades, Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0