Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2014, 2015, Nascimbene 2014, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (UPS-L-166802), Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus crustose, mostly endosubstratic and inconspicuous, effuse, whitish grey to pale grey-green. Perithecia rather rare, 0.15-0.25 mm across, globose to subconical, first immersed, later more or less superficial. Excipulum brown and 30-50 μm thick in upper part; paler and thinner in lower part; involucrellum poorly developed, apical K+ green. Hamathecium of slender, branched and anastomosed, long-celled, c. 1 μm thick pseudoparaphyses; periphyses absent; hymenial gel I-. Asci 8-spored cylindrical-clavate, K/I-, fissitunicate, the apical dome with an indistinct ocular chamber. Ascospores 1-2-septate, hyaline, clavate-fusiform, the part above the primary septum wider and about twice as long as the lower part, (12-)14-20(-23) x (3-)4.5-5(-6) μm. Pycnidia black, prominent, of two types: a) 0.1-0.15 mm across, to 0.2 mm high, sessile, conical, extruding a white, thread-like, very long gelatinous cirrus containing ellipsoid or ovoid macroconidia with a truncate base, 3.5-4.5 x 1.8-2 μm, or 7.5-10 x 3.5-4 μm. b) 0.05-0.1 mm across, mostly immersed, globose, with rod-shaped to narrowly ellipsoid microconidia, 2.3 x 1-1.3 μm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: all negative. Chemistry: no lichen substances.
Note: a mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic species, mainly found on Sambucus along rivers and brooks. Overlooked for a long time, and certainly more widespread throughout Italy, with optimum in the submediterranean belt. For further information see Aptroot (1999).
Growth form: Crustose
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)