Arthonia calcarea (Sm.) Ertz & Diederich

in Ertz & al., Mycol. Res., 113: 146, 2009. Basionym: Opegrapha calcarea Turner ex Sm. in Smith & Sowerby - Engl. Bot., 25: 1790, 1807.
Synonyms: Opegrapha chevallieri Leight.; Opegrapha conferta auct. p.p. non Anzi; Opegrapha confluens auct. non (Ach.) Stizenb.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (TSB 24287), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1993), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, 2004, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & al. 2002, 2009, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2005, 2006, Genco & al. 2007, Gianguzzi & al. 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, endosubstratic to thinly episubstratic, continuous or finely cracked, whitish to pale grey, sometimes with a pink hue,usually not well-delimited, I+ blue. Apothecia lirelliform, black, epruinose, straight or curved, simple or rarely branched, (0-4)0.8-1.5(-3) x 0.2-0.4 mm, isolated or more commonly forming star-like clusters, protruding from thallus, with a slit-like disc and a black, carbonaceous margin. Proper exciple closed below the hymenium, K+ greenish, the part below the hymenium column-like, usually taller than the upper part; epithecium brown, K+ greenish; hymenium colourless, I+ blue throughout, K/I+ blue, 60-75 µm tall; paraphyses much branched, not capitate; hypothecium black. Asci 8-spored, broadly clavate to subglobose, semi-fissitunicate, Arthonia-type. Ascospores 3-septate with rounded ends, hyaline, (11-)14-20(-21) x (3-)4-5(-6) μm, with a thin, usually poorly visible perispore. Pycnidia black, semi-immersed. Conidia straight, 5-8 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: on limestone, brick, roofing tiles, etc. in sheltered situations, the most common calcicolous species of the genus throughout Italy, with a wide altitudinal range. According to Roux & coll. (2014) A. trifurcata is an independent species: some records could refer to that species.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13485)
2001/11/27



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38281)
2008.02.23



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy