Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 340, 1814. Basionym: Lecanora varia var. symmicta Ach. - Lichenogr. Univ.: 379, 1810.
Synonyms: Biatora maculiformis (Hoffm.) Beltr.; Biatora symmicta (Ach.) A. Massal.; Lecanora symmicta var. symmictera (Nyl.) Zahlbr.; Lecanora symmictera Nyl.; Lecanora trabalis (Ach.) Nyl.; Lecanora varia var. maculiformis (Hoffm.) Rabenh.; Lecidea symmicta (Ach.) Ach.; Zeora maculiformis (Hoffm.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Castello & Skert 2005), Ven (Lecid. Exs. 244: Hertel 1992a, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2014, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Kantvilas & La Greca 2008), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2008b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Furlanetto 2010), VA (Matteucci & al. 2008, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1996, 1999a, 2002c, 2004c, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Loppi & Corsini 2003, Loppi & Frati 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Nascimbene 2010, Benesperi 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012, 2015d, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Zedda 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Brackel 2008b).
Description: Thallus crustose, continuous, rimose or warted-areolate, sometimes almost subleprose, yellowish green to greenish grey, sometimes inapparent, rarely delimited by a white prothallus. Apothecia biatorine, round to irregular in outline, sometimes confluent and/or tuberculate, sessile, 0.4-0.7(-1) mm across, with a yellowish green to ochre-coloured, rarely darkened, weakly to strongly convex disc, and thin, soon excluded proper margin, without a thalline margin. Proper exciple colourless within, the outer part with yellow-brown granules soluble in K; epithecium greenish ochre to orange-brown, with brownish yellow, coarse granulessoluble in K; hymenium colourless to pale yellow-brown, 35-50 µm high; paraphyses sparingly branched and anastomosing, 1.5-2.5 µm thick, the apical cells not much swollen, to 3.5 µm wide; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora<-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, (7-)9-12(-16) x 3-4.5(-6) µm. Conidia thread-like, 18-25 x 0.5-1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C- or C+ orange, KC- or KC+ weakly yellow, P-, UV+ dull orange. Chemistry: usnic acid, zeorin, arthothelin, thiophanic acid, variable amounts of xanthones.
Note: a holarctic, boreal-montane to temperate lichen found on acid bark, often on the twigs of shrubs, with a wide altitudinal range, sometimes occurring also within small conurbations; most frequent in northern and in Tyrrhenian Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rather common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php . Courtesy: A. Stridvall


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14348)
2001/11/26


Harry Taylor; Owner: Natural History Museum London


Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11045], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel, Südufer des Lagoa das Furnas, 270 m, 37°45.022' N, 25°19.807' W . Leg. Schumm 03.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003
HPTLC in den Laufmitteln A, B’ und C nach Säurebehandlung bei Tageslicht und 366 nm UV-Langwelle. 1: Start, 4: Position von Norstictinsäure, 7: Position von Atranorin us: Usninsäure, z: Zeorin


Photo by Maria Zardini, Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia CC BY-SA 4.0
ad cort. Abietum in nemoribus Septem Communium.
Trevisan Lichenotheca Veneta 65 as Zeora maculiformis


Photo by Maria Zardini, Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia CC BY-SA 4.0
ad cort. Abietum in nemoribus Septem Communium.
Trevisan Lichenotheca Veneta 65 as Zeora maculiformis