Arthonia galactites (DC.) Dufour

J. Phys. Hist. Nat., 87: 203, 1818. Basionym: Verrucaria galactites DC. in Lamarck & de Candolle - Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 315, 1805.
Synonyms: Arthonia galactites var. depuncta Nyl.; Arthonia marginella Dufour; Arthonia punctiformis var. galactina Ach. non Arthonia cinereopruinosa var. galactina sensu A. Massal.; Coniangium galactites sensu Bagl.?
Distribution: N - VG (Sundin 1999), Frl (TSB 6585), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2007b), Lomb, Piem, Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Watson 2014). C - Tosc, Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).
Description: Thallus crustose, white, mostly endosubstratic, without a distinct prothallus, facultatively lichenized, forming orbicular patches to 2 cm in diam. Apothecia arthonioid, immarginate, black, epruinose, circular to slightly elongate, flat to weakly convex, 0.2-0.8(-1) x 0.2-0.7 mm. Epithecium dark brown, K+ violet; hymenium pale yellowish green, c. 20-35 µm high, K-; paraphysoids 1-2 µm thick, the apical cells to 3 µm wide; hypothecium brown or yellowish green, the yellow green-pigment K+ violet, not dissolving. Asci 8-spored, broadly ovoid, semi-fissitunicate, with a large apical dome and a distinct ocular chamber, Arthonia-type. Ascospores 1-septate, hyaline, ovoid, (10-)12-15 x (3-)4-5 µm. Pycnidia usually numerous, black around the ostiole, with brown, K+ olive walls. Conidia long-filiform, curved, 10-16 x c. 0.5 µm. Photobiont absent or trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K- or K+ pale yellow, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: no lichen substances detected.
Note: a mild-temperate species with optimum on the smooth bark of Fraxinus ornus, but also on Populus and even Pistacia, probably overlooked or/and confused with other species, but certainly not common, and perhaps mostly coastal or Tyrrhenian Italy. Most records, especially those from northern Italy, need confirmation.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 31336


Redinger, K. (1938) Arthoniaceae, Graphidaceae . In Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band 9, 2 Abt., Part 1 (G. L. Rabenhorst, ed.): 181–404. Leipzig: Borntraeger


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.