Arthonia ilicina Taylor

Fl. Hibern., 2: 105, 1836.
Synonyms: Arthonia ilicina T.Taylor; Arthonia ilicina Taylor; Arthothelium ilicinum (Taylor) P. James
Distribution: S - Pugl (Durini & Medagli 2002), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus crustose, endosubstratic creamy white, effuse or delimited by a brown prothalline line. Apothecia arthonioid, scattered, rounded and 0.2-1 mm across, more rarely elongate and c. 0.2-0.6 x 2 mm, 90-130 µm tall, flat and level with thallus or convex and slightly raised, dark red-brown or brown-black, epruinose. Proper exciple poorly developed; epithecium reddish brown, of mainly anticlinally arranged, brown-walled hyphae, 20-25 µm high, K+ olivaceous, often covered with a 10-20 µm high, hyaline, gelatinous layer; hymenium colourless to yellowish brown, 60-85 µm high, K+ pale green, I+ blue turning wine-red; paraphysoids anastomosing, branched in upper part, c. 1 µm thick, the apical cells 1.5-2 µm wide; hypothecum colourless to yellowish brown, 10-30 µm high. Asci 8-spored, broadly clavate, semi-fissitunicate, with a large apical dome, and a distinct ocular chamber, the apex with a K/I+ blue, elongated ring structure and paler bluish tholus flanks, Arthothelium-type. Ascospores 5-6(-7)-septate, hyaline but often turning brown and faintly verruculose when overmature, clavate-obovoid, with one of the terminal cells enlarged, straight to slightly curved, 25-40 x 9-14 µm. Pycnidia brownish, 60-80 µm across, the wall K+ pale green. Conidia bacilliform, 7-9.5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic species of humid montane woodlands, known from a few localities in southern Italy. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Endangered” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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5

Solar irradiation:

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5

Aridity:

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5

Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

(info)

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Altitudinal distribution:

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5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10644)
2001/11/21



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy, Puntillo 7117



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Photo uploaded by P. Cannon, CC BY-SA NC Source: http://fungi.myspecies.info/file/12736


Redinger, K. (1938) Arthoniaceae, Graphidaceae . In Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band 9, 2 Abt., Part 1 (G. L. Rabenhorst, ed.): 181–404. Leipzig: Borntraeger