Arthonia meridionalis Zahlbr.

Ann. Mycol., 12: 336, 1914.
Synonyms:
Distribution: C - Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003, Puntillo 2011), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, continuous to rimose, chalky white, c. 100 µm thick, forming slightly raised, irregularly rounded, often confluent patches. Apothecia arthonioid, numerous, round to slightly elongate, 0.1-0.6 x 0.1-0.5 mm across, black but thinly white-pruinose, immersed and level with thallus. Proper exciple poorly developed, of dark hyphae; epithecium brown to brown-black, K-; hymenium colourless to patchily brown, 50-60 µm high; paraphysoids numerous, the apical cells swollen, 3.5-4.5 μm wide, with a dark brown cap; hypothecium dark brown to black, wedge-shaped, 45-55(-70) μm high, K-. Asci 8-spored, broadly clavate, semi-fissitunicate, with a large apical dome, and a distinct ocular chamber, Arthonia-type. Ascospores 1-septate, not constricted at septum, hyaline, ellipsoid with rounded ends, (8-)12-15 x (3.5-)5-6 μm. Pycnidia black, immersed. Conidia bacilliform, 5-9 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic species found on soft limestone in sheltered situations, often with Opegrapha durieui; mainly Tyrrhenian in Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
Taxon bound to maritime-coastal situations

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35700)
2003/01/22



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (16665)
2001/11/21



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38152)
2008.02.23



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy


Redinger, K. (1938) Arthoniaceae, Graphidaceae . In Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band 9, 2 Abt., Part 1 (G. L. Rabenhorst, ed.): 181–404. Leipzig: Borntraeger