Athallia pyracea (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

in Arup & al., Nord. J. Bot., 31: 36, 2013. Basionym: Parmelia cerina var. pyracea Ach. - Meth. Lich.: 176, 1803.
Synonyms: Callopisma luteoalbum var. celtidis A. Massal.; Callopisma luteoalbum var. confluens A. Massal.; Callopisma luteoalbum var. cupressinum Bagl.; Callopisma luteoalbum var. orbiculare A. Massal.; Caloplaca holocarpa auct. p.p.; Caloplaca luteoalba auct. ital. p.p.; Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Zwackh.; Placodium pyraceum (Ach.) Anzi
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Lazzarin 2000, 2000b, Nascimbene 2008, Nascimbene & Marini 2010), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, 2007b, 2008c, 2014, Nascimbene 2014), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Griselli & al. 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2007, 2009, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008c), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Sallese 2003, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Gerdol & al. 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, Monaci & al. 1997, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi & al. 2007, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Benesperi 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2012, 2015, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013, Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Zedda 2002, 2002b, Zedda & Sipman 2001 Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Garofalo & al. 2010, Catalano & al. 2012, 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Paoli & al. 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Grillo & Carfì 1997, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Merlo 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Grillo & Cataldo 2008, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, usually thin and continuous, sometimes almost endosubstratic, pale grey to almost white, very rarely yellowish white, forming patches 0.5-2 cm in diam. Cortex usually poorly developed, of an amorphous layer or indistinctly paraplectenchymatous; medulla poorly developed. Apothecia frequent, zeorine, scattered to crowded, adnate to sessile, 0.3-1 mm across, with a flat to slightly convex, orange to yellow-orange disc, a thick, yellow-orange (often paler than disc) proper margin, and a poorly developed, greyish to yellowish grey thalline margin. Thalline exciple 50-80 μm wide, with a paraplectenchymatous cortex in lower part; proper exciple of irregularly radiating, thick-walled hyphae, 35-75 μm wide; epithecium orange, granular, K+ red, C-; hymenium colourless, 70-90(-100) μm high, amyloid; paraphyses (1-)2-2.5 μm thick, the uppermost cells (2-)4–6 μm wide; hypothecium colourless, sometimes inspersed with oil droplets. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, (8.5-)10-15 x (4.5-)6-8(-10) μm, the septum (3-)4-5.5(-7.5) μm thick, ratio of septum/spore length (0.25-)0.3-0.45(-0.5). Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-; apothecia K+ red, C-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances; apothecia with parietin (major), fallacinal, emodin, teloschistin and parietinic acid (minor), corresponding with chemosyndrome A of Søchting (1997).
Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, holarctic lichen found on nutrient-rich or eutrophicated bark of isolated trees (especially Acer, Fraxinus and Juglans), with a wide altitudinal range.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19401], U.S.A. North Dakota, McKenzie Co. Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Unit, along little Missouri River near Squaw Creek campground, 24 km S of Watford City, , 595 m, 47°35'31'' N, 103°20'25'' S. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No. 44871), 21. July 1982. TELOSCHIST. EXS. 114



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11797)
2001/11/14



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29814)
2001/12/03



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31178)
2001/11/26



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31178)
2001/11/26



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11797)
2001/11/14



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29814)
2001/12/03



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21
with Physcia biziana, Caloplaca cerina, etc.



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38444)
2008.02.23



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (22360)
2008.03.03


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19401], U.S.A. North Dakota, McKenzie Co. Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Unit, along little Missouri River near Squaw Creek campground, 24 km S of Watford City, , 595 m, 47°35'31'' N, 103°20'25'' S. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No. 44871), 21. July 1982. TELOSCHIST. EXS. 114



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19402], U.S.A. North Dakota, McKenzie Co. Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Unit, along little Missouri River Bison Corral, 3.2 km SW of entrance station, 595 m, 47°34'50''N, 103°17'57'' W, on large Populus deltoides. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No. 80186), 14. June 1998, TELOSCH. EXS. 115



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19402], U.S.A. North Dakota, McKenzie Co. Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Unit, along little Missouri River Bison Corral, 3.2 km SW of entrance station, 595 m, 47°34'50''N, 103°17'57'' W, on large Populus deltoides. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No. 80186), 14. June 1998, TELOSCH. EXS. 115



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19405], USA, Wyoming, Western Co., Black Hills, along US 85 at Soldieer Creek, 32 km NNW of Newcastle, 44°09'32'' N, 104°09'28'' W, 1800 m, on branches of Pinus ponderosa. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No.11292), 12. Aug. 1961. TELOSCH.EXS. 116



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19405], USA, Wyoming, Western Co., Black Hills, along US 85 at Soldieer Creek, 32 km NNW of Newcastle, 44°09'32'' N, 104°09'28'' W, 1800 m, on branches of Pinus ponderosa. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No.11292), 12. Aug. 1961. TELOSCH.EXS. 116



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19405], USA, Wyoming, Western Co., Black Hills, along US 85 at Soldieer Creek, 32 km NNW of Newcastle, 44°09'32'' N, 104°09'28'' W, 1800 m, on branches of Pinus ponderosa. Leg. C.M. Wetmore (No.11292), 12. Aug. 1961. TELOSCH.EXS. 116



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Felix Schumm - CC BY.SA 4.0
[LIAF_65], Afghanistan, Prov. Paktia, 3 km N Rabat, ca. 10 km S Chamkani, an der Straße nach Zambar, 69°47.5’ E, 33°42.5’ N, 1880 m. Auf Cotoneaster cf. subuniflora (Kitamura) Klotz. Leg. M. Steiner (Ste 82), 04.07.1970. LICHENOTHECA AFGHANICA NR. 65



Pier Luigi Nimis
Italy
TSB 41752



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 38191



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 38191