Biatora pontica Printzen & Tønsberg

Bibl. Lichenol., 86: 40, 2003.
Synonyms:
Distribution: N - Frl (Printzen & Tønsberg 2003, Tretiach 2004). C - Abr (Di Santo & Ravera 2012, Corona & al. 2016).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, at first thin and areolate, with initially punctiform, then confluent, yellowish- or green soralia which in mature specimens may cover almost the whole thallus surface, giving it a subleprose appearance. Areoles (in non-sorediate parts) up to 1.2 mm in diam. Apothecia biatorine, 0.5-0.7 mm across, with a flat to moderately convex, dark greyish-ochre to brownish-grey disc and a soon excluded proper margin. Anatomically apothecia are characterized by a blue pigment (Pontica-blue) in the hypothecium, subhymenium, and (rarely) hymenium and epithecium; sometimes an additional red pigment (Pontica-red) is present in the hypothecium and hymenium. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a K/I+ blue apical dome penetrated by a narrow, K/I– apical cushion surrounded by a narrow, deeply K/I+ blue zone, the wall K/I- but surrounded by an I+ red-brown, K/I+ blue outer layer, the ocular chamber relatively small, Biatora-type. Ascospores 0(-1)-septate, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to bacilliform, 12-15 x 3–4 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: soralia K-, C+ orange KC+ orange, P-. Chemistry: thiophanic acid (major), asemone, and an unidentified diagnostic substance (Pontica unknown’), sometimes with minor or trace amounts of other xanthones. Apothecial tissues with the Pontica-blue and sometimes Pontica-red pigments.
Note: described from Turkey, and also known from Scandinavia, Austria, Slovenia and eastern North America, this species occurs on acidic to subacidic bark in shaded and humid situations within old montane forests, mainly on Fagus and Abies.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35440)
2002/12/03



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35440)
2002/12/03
apothecium



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35440)
2002/12/03
sterile thallus



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_35418], Italy, Carnic Alps, Lake of Sauris (Prov. Udine), road from the dam to Passo del Pura, near Rio Storto, c. 1020 m, Abieti- Fagetum, on Fagus and Abies.Leg. M. Tretiach, 30.07.2002 ,conf. T. Tønsberg



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_35418], Italy, Carnic Alps, Lake of Sauris (Prov. Udine), road from the dam to Passo del Pura, near Rio Storto, c. 1020 m, Abieti- Fagetum, on Fagus and Abies.Leg. M. Tretiach, 30.07.2002 ,conf. T. Tønsberg