Biatora subduplex (Nyl.) Printzen

Räsänen ex Printzen, Bibl. Lichenol., 60: 123, 1995. Basionym: Lecidea vernalis f. subduplex Nyl. - Lich. Scand., 201, 1861.
Synonyms: Biatora subduplex (Nyl.) Räsänen comb. inval.; Biatora vernalis f. subduplex (Nyl.) Arnold; Bilimbia sphaeroides var. subduplex (Nyl.) Branth; Catillaria subduplex (Nyl.) H. Olivier; Lecidea apochroeiza Nyl.; Lecidea internectens Nyl.; Lecidea subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - Frl (Arnold Lich. Exs. 835: Printzen 1995), TAA (Printzen 1995, Nascimbene & al. 2007b), Lomb (Anzi Lich. Lang. 179: Printzen 1995), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Matteucci & al. 2015b), VA (Matteucci & Vanacore Falco 2015), Lig (TSB 34008). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, whitish grey, greenish grey or pale ochre, continuous, rimose or areolate, forming patches to 5 cm in diam. Areoles 0.15-0.55 mm across, irregular in outline, the margins often crenulate or slightly raised. Apothecia biatorine, sessile and constricted at base, orange-brown to red-brown, 0.2-0.7(-1.5) mm across, with an initially flat, then strongly convex and sometimes tuberculate disc, and a paler, thin, smooth, soon excluded proper margin. Proper exciple 25-80(-100) µm wide laterally, colourless in outer part, pale brown within, of radiating hyphae with angular-elongate (brick-shaped), 1-2.5 µm wide lumina; epithecium scarcely differentiated from the hymenium, colourless to very pale brown; hymenium colourless, yellowish or brownish, 35-60 µm high; paraphyses conglutinate, simple or poorly branched, 1-1.5 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells to 4 µm wide; hypothecium yellowish or brownish, 35-200(-300) µm high. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thick-walled, the outer wall weakly I+ reddish, Biatora-type. Ascospores 1-celled (rarely 1-septate), hyaline, ellipsoid, (8-)10-15(-21) x 3-5(-6) µm, with a thin perispore. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: one of the commonest Biatora-species in the Alps, especially on plant remains and on basal parts of subalpine shrubs, overlooked, and certainly more widespread in the Alps, and also known from the northern Apennines. See also notes on B. cuprea and B. vernalis.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather common
Subalpine belt: very common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34659)
2002/01/31



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern