Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal.

Flora, 35: 574, 1852. Basionym: Lichen ferrugineus Huds. - Fl. Angl.: 444, 1762.
Synonyms: Biatora ferruginea (Huds.) Fr.; Blastenia ferruginea var. corticicola (Flot.) Anzi; Callopisma ferrugineum (Huds.) Trevis.; Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. non auct.; Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr.; Placodium ferrugineum (Huds.) Hepp
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2010), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, 2003, Zocchi & al. 1997, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Matteucci & al. 2008), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2004c, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Putortì & al. 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999b, Benesperi 2000a, 2011, Loppi & Pirintsos 2000, Paoli & Loppi 2001, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Paoli & al. 2012, Nascimbene & al. 2012, 2015, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015, Vondrák & al. 2020), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Paoli & al. 2011, 2015, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2012, 2016, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Brackel 2008b, Liistro & Cataldo 2011, Vondrák & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, pale grey to almost white, smooth to usually warted, forming patches to 5 cm diam, sometimes delimited by a blackish prothallus. Apothecia common, biatorine/zeorine, sessile and constricted at base, (0.5-)1-2(-2.5) mm across, with a rust red, usually flat disc and a concolorous, persistent, often flexuose proper margin. Proper exciple prosoplectenchymatous, non-amyloid, K+ red, C+ purple in section; epithecium orange-brown, granular, K+ red, C-; hymenium colourless, (60-)70-100(-130) µm high, not inspersed with oil droplets, amyloid; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched in upper part, 1.5-2 μm thick, the apical cells 2.5-3 μm wide; hypothecium colourless, not amyloid. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline ellipsoid, 12-18 x 6-10 μm, the septum 4-6(-8) μm thick. Pycnidia red in apical parts. Conidia bacilliform, rarely narrowly ellipsoid, 3-5 x 1-1.5 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-; apothecia K+ red; pycnidia and apothecial margin K+ red, C+ purple in section. Chemistry: non-chlorinated non-anthraquinones in apothecial disc; chlorinated anthraquinones in exciple and pycnidial wall; thallus without or rarely with traces of anthraquinones; Cinereorufa-green in prothallus.
Note: a mild-temperate species, with optimum on oaks in the submediterranean belt, widespread throughout the country, but absent from heavily disturbed areas.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: rather common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29646)
2001/12/03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31774)
2008.03.03



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy


Jan Vondrak - Source: https://botanika.prf.jcu.cz/lichenology/index.php?pg=8&cat=32&idx=15995



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 43731