Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 136, 1977. Basionym: Alectoria fremontii Tuck. - Am. J. Arts Sc., ser. 2, 25: 422, 1858.
Synonyms: Alectoria olivacea Räsänen; Alectoria tortuosa G. Merr.; Bryoria tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Distribution: N - TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2007b), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).
Description: Thallus fruticose, filamentous, attached by a basal holdfast, long-pendent, soft, to 60 cm long, pale brown to dark brown in sun-exposed morphs, the main branches to 4 mm thick, often twisted and foveolate, the secondary branches much thinner, sometimes with perpendicular side branchlets. Soralia absent to abundant, yellowish, tuberculate, with farinose soredia. Pseudocyphellae sparse to abundant, elongate to fusiform, white or bright yellow. Apothecia extremely rare (never observed in Italian material), zeorine, with a brown disc covered with a yellow pruina, to 2 mm across. Asci 8-spored, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, subglobose, 5-8 x 4-5 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: vulpinic acid, often limited to the soralia, rarely barbatolic and norstictic acid in traces.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, easily recognizable species found on twigs of conifers in damp montane to subalpine forests. It is included as “Regionally Exctinct” in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Fruticose filamentous
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24869



Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
Washington, Redondo Beach Park, northern end of Puget Sound On conifer twig at forest edge, margin of marine lagoon; Bryoria tortuosa form 2011-04-02



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (24869)
2001/11/22