Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 83, 1977. Basionym: Alectoria fuscescens Gyeln. - Nytt Mag. Naturvid., 70: 55, 1932.
Synonyms: Alectoria achariana Gyeln.?; Alectoria crispa Motyka; Alectoria haynaldii Gyeln.; Alectoria jubata auct. p.p.; Alectoria jubata var. lanestris Ach.; Alectoria lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln.; Alectoria positiva (Gyeln.) Motyka?; Bryopogon jubatus (L.) Link; Bryopogon lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln.; Bryoria fuscescens var. positiva (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.; Bryoria lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.; Bryoria positiva (Gyeln.) Bystrek; Bryoria subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.; Evernia jubata (L.) Fr.
Distribution: N - VG (vidi!), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Brackel 2013), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Thell & al. 2002, 2004, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Stofer 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Lang 2009, Brackel 2013, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, Chiappetta & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Brackel 2013), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2004, Matteucci & al. 2013), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Petrak 1968, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Stofer 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Brackel 2020), Sar (Zedda 2002, 2002b, Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Thüs & Licht 2006), Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Potenza 2006, Brackel 2011, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Czezuga & al. 1994, Merlo 2004, Falco Scampatelli 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).
Description: Thallus fruticose-filamentous, brown to olive-black, pendulous, to 30 cm long, isotomic dichotomously branched towards the base, but becoming anisotomic dichotomous towards the apices, the angles between dichotomies mainly obtuse. Main branches much larger than the secondary ones, usually twisted and foveolate to channeled, sometimes flattened at the base, (0.3-)0.5-1.0(-2.0) mm diam, without spinules and pseudocyphellae. Soralia absent to sparse, usually tuberculate. Apothecia usually absent. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- (rarely P+ red), UV-; soralia P+ red. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid in the soralia.
Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, which is the most common species of Bryoria in Italy, and the one with the broadest ecological range, sometimes reaching (in humid situations) the Mediterranean belt; extinct in the Po-plain and declining. The study of Boluda et al. (2019) revealed a strong mismatch between phenotypes and genotypes in Bryoria sect. Implexae, which brought to the reduction from 11 to 4 species. All European species (B. capillaris, B. chalybeiformis, B. implexa, B. lanestris, B. kuemmerleana, and B. subcana) - except the northern B. glabra - should be considered as synonyms of B. fuscescens. Due to their chemical and morphological differences, I still provisionally maintain these taxa as separate species, although they should be best treated as chemical races or forms of B fuscescens.
Growth form: Fruticose filamentous
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 12998


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu