Byssoloma leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain.

Dansk Bot. Ark., 4: 23, 1926. Basionym: Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl. in Triana & Planchon - Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot., 4, 19: 337, 1863.
Synonyms: Calidia rhizophora Stirt.
Distribution: N - Lig (Sérusiaux 1998, Brunialti & al. 1999). S - Camp (Puntillo 2000), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998), Cal (Puntillo & Vezda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Vezda Lich. Rar. Exs. 241, Sérusiaux 1998 Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000).
Description: Thallus crustose, thinly episubstratic, greenish grey to greenish brown, continuous to rimose, minutely granulose or farinose, forming orbicular, often confluent patches 1-3 cm in diam., often delimited by dark prothallus. Apothecia scattered to clustered, round to irregular in outline by mutual compression, 0.3-0.6 mm across, with a flat to slightly convex, orange-brown, grey-brown or finally brown-black disc surrounded by a cottony-arachnoid, tomentose, yellowish white to yellowish grey rim, without a thalline margin. Proper exciple formed by loosely intricate hyphae; epithecium colourless to pale brown; hymenium colourless, I+ blue; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched, the apical cells not swollen; hypothecium dark red-brown, K+ purple. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a K/I+ blue apical dome containing a darker blue, tubular ring-structure, and an amyloid coat, Byssoloma-type. Ascospores 3-septate, hyaline, fusiform, 10-18 x 2-4 µm. Pycnidia grey-black, sessile, globose. Conidia pyriform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P- or P+ orange red. Chemistry: without lichen substances, or with argopsin.
Note: a pantropical foliicolous species occurring also on bark. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Vulnerable” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Restricted to humid-warm, oceanic areas

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18109], Brasilien, São Paulo, Fazenda 13. de maio; 18 km nördlich von Botukatu und 14 km E von São Manuel, in einem alten Cerradão, 550 m, 22°45' S, 48°25' W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Gottsberger, 09.11.1979, det. A. V zda. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 364.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31884)
2001/12/27



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10523)
2001/11/22



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18091], Brasilien, São Paulo, Serra do Mar, Serra do Peruibe bei Ana Dias, etwa 120 km südwestlich von São Paulo, an jungen Alleebäumen, auf Rinde, 50 m, 24°20’ S, 47°05’ W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 02.04.1978. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 7


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18091], Brasilien, São Paulo, Serra do Mar, Serra do Peruibe bei Ana Dias, etwa 120 km südwestlich von São Paulo, an jungen Alleebäumen, auf Rinde, 50 m, 24°20’ S, 47°05’ W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 02.04.1978. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 7


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18109], Brasilien, São Paulo, Fazenda 13. de maio; 18 km nördlich von Botukatu und 14 km E von São Manuel, in einem alten Cerradão, 550 m, 22°45' S, 48°25' W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Gottsberger, 09.11.1979, det. A. V zda. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 364.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008


Wolfgang von Brackel
Italy, Campania, Cilento, su Alnus a 575 m


Wolfgang von Brackel
Italy, Campania, Cilento, su Alnus a 575 m



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italia



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14161], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,097' N, 27°17,222' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008