Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James

Lichenologist, 5: 126, 1971. Basionym: Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl. - Flora, 62: 221, 1879.
Synonyms: Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.; Byssoloma tricholomum sensu Lettau non (Mont.) Zahlbr.
Distribution: S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Puntillo 2000), Cal (Puntillo & Vezda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, 2000, Sérusiaux 1998).
Description: Thallus crustose, thinly episubstratic, ecorticate, minutely granulose-verruculose, 0.2-0.4 mm thick, whitish to greenish grey, continuous or forming more or less orbicular, often confluent, 0.3-2(-4) cm wide patches. Apothecia biatorine, rounded, constricted at base at least when young, 0.2-0.6 mm across, sometimes clustered and then distorted, with a black to bluish black, flat to slightly convex disc surrounded by a pure white, byssoid margin. Exciple paraplectenchymatous, 20-50 µm wide laterally, 30-40 µm thick at base; epithecium blackish brown to aeruginose; hymenium colourless, 40-60 µm high, I+ blue; paraphyses coherent, simple or furcate, c. 1.5 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells not swollen; hypothecium dark purplish browm 20-50 µm thick. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a K/I+ blue apical dome containing a darker blue, tubular ring-structure, and an amyloid coat, Byssoloma-type. Ascospores 3-septate, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, slightly tapering at one end, 10-18 x 2.5-5 µm. Pycnidia rare, globose, sessile, up to 0.15 mm across, bluish black, usually wih hyaline hairs on the outer wall. Conidia flask-shaped, 4-5 x 1.5-2 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances.
Note: a humid subtropical to tropical foliicolous species with isolated outliers in humid parts of the mild-temperate zone; in the Italian stations it was found on leaves of Abies, Buxus and Laurus; to be looked for in the Alps, in montane humid forests, on twigs of conifers. The species is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Endangered” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: leaves
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m.
16.07.2008



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy


Felix Schumm- CC BY-SA 4.0
[18116], Brasilien, Minas Gerais, Serra do Espinhaço, Serra do Caraça, oberhalb des Klosters Caraça, in einem lichten Cerrado. 1450 m, 20°10’ S, 43°30’ W. Leg. K. Kalb und G. Pröbst, 08.07.1978. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 9.


Felix Schumm- CC BY-SA 4.0
[18116], Brasilien, Minas Gerais, Serra do Espinhaço, Serra do Caraça, oberhalb des Klosters Caraça, in einem lichten Cerrado. 1450 m, 20°10’ S, 43°30’ W. Leg. K. Kalb und G. Pröbst, 08.07.1978. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 9.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14163], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Lagoa da Falca, 38°43,97' N, 27°17,22' W, ca. 520 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 16.07.2008



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italia



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9414)
2001/11/22



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 5221



D. Puntillo CC BY-SA 04