Calicium salicinum Pers.

Ann. Bot. (Usteri), 7: 20, 1794.
Synonyms: Calicium hyperellum var. salicinum (Pers.) Schaer.; Calicium lichenoides (L.) Schumach.; Calicium salicinum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Trevis.; Calicium sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach.; Calicium sphaerocephalum var. xylonellum (Ach.) Wahlenb.; Calicium trachelinum Ach.; Calicium xylonellum Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Ven (Nascimbene 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2013b), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2007b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Lomb (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Brunialti & al. 2001, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Putortì & al. 1999b). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997b, Putortì & al. 1999, Tretiach & al. 2008, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Laz (Ravera 2002b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Abr (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Caporale & al. 2008, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Sar (Zedda 2002, 2002b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Bas (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Si (Grillo 1996, Schicchi & al. 1997, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, endosubstratic and appearing as a grey stain, or thinly episubstratic and granular, grey-green. Apothecia long-stalked, pin-like, black with a brown pruina on the margin and underside of the capitulum. Stalk (0.6-)0.9-1.5 mm high, black or brown-pruinose in the uppermost part, of sclerotized, dark, irregularly interwoven hyphae, the outer layer covered with a thin, paler, non-amyloid gelatinous sheath. Capitulum lenticular, with a well-developed, cup-shaped exciple; mazaedium well developed, black; hypothecium blackish brown, with a convex upper surface. Asci cylindrical, formed singly, dissolving early, with uniseriately arranged ascospores. Ascospores 1-septate, dark brown, ellipsoid, 8-11 x 3.5-5 µm, with a thick, ornamented wall the ornamentation of minute, spirally arranged ridges and later also some irregular cracks. Photobiont chlorococcoid Spot tests: thallus K+ dull yellow then reddish, C-, KC+ dull yellow-orange, P- or P+ pale yellow-orange; brown pruina on the capitulum K+ red (needle-like crystals); ascomata I- in all parts. Chemistry: thallus with norstictic and/or placodiolic acid.
Note: a holarctic, temperate species, most frequent on dry parts of the boles of deciduous, acid-barked trees, but also on lignum (fence-posts, decorticated stumps), most frequent in the montane belt.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13671)
2001/12/05



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13671)
2001/12/05


Felix Schumm- CC BY-SA 4.0
[17165], Brasilien, São Paulo, Serra do Mar, Serra de Paranapiacaba, etwa 80 km SW von São Paulo, an Zaunpfosten am Rande eines hellen, feuchten Urwalds am Rio Junquiá. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst , 24.03.1979, det. L. Tibell. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 490


Fotos Prof. G. Hillmann/Lund – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.


Fotos Prof. G. Hillmann/Lund – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9771], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, zwischen Stuttgart und Leonberg, an Laubbäumen beim Pfaffensee, 48°45'N, 9°05'E, 430 mTK 7220. Leg Schumm 21.01.1971, det. V. Wirth



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9771], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, zwischen Stuttgart und Leonberg, an Laubbäumen beim Pfaffensee, 48°45'N, 9°05'E, 430 mTK 7220. Leg Schumm 21.01.1971, det. V. Wirth



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9771], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, zwischen Stuttgart und Leonberg, an Laubbäumen beim Pfaffensee, 48°45'N, 9°05'E, 430 mTK 7220. Leg Schumm 21.01.1971, det. V. Wirth



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9771], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, zwischen Stuttgart und Leonberg, an Laubbäumen beim Pfaffensee, 48°45'N, 9°05'E, 430 mTK 7220. Leg Schumm 21.01.1971, det. V. Wirth



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9771], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, zwischen Stuttgart und Leonberg, an Laubbäumen beim Pfaffensee, 48°45'N, 9°05'E, 430 mTK 7220. Leg Schumm 21.01.1971, det. V. Wirth



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3139], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald, Weg vom Feldberg zur Zastler Hütte, ca. 1300 m, TK 8114. Leg. Schumm & Wolf 30.08.1987, det. Schumm 1987.



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Calabria



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Calabria



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Calabria


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA



Domenico Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0



Domenico Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0