Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein

in Cohn, Krypt.-Fl. von Schlesien, 2: 84, 1879. Basionym: Lichen concolor Dicks. - Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit., 3: 18, 1793.
Synonyms: Blasteniospora concolor (Dicks.) Trevis.; Caloplaca concolor (Dicks.) Jatta; Candelaria concolor var. granulosa (Harm.) Mereschk.; Candelaria vulgaris A. Massal.; Lecanora laciniosa Nyl.; Physcia concolor (Dicks.) Bagl. & Carestia
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Nimis & Salvadori 1998, Castello & Skert 2005, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Nascimbene & Salvadori 2008, Nascimbene & al. 2009b, Bernini & al. 2010, Brackel 2013), Ven (Philippi 1983, Nimis & al. 1996c, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, 2000b, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2007, 2008e, 2010b, 2012, 2015, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010, Nascimbene & Salvadori 2008, Westberg & Arup 2011), TAA (Philippi 1983, De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006c, 2014, Zieger & al. 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Anderi & al. 2005, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010, Brackel 2013, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Griselli & al. 2000, 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2006, 2007, 2009, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Sallese 2003, Marconi & al. 2006, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Cioffi 2009, Malavasi 2014, Gerdol & al. 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997e, 1998b, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2003, 2004, 2004c, 2006, Loppi & Corsini 1995, 2003, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Monaci & al. 1997, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Bacci & al. 2000, Benesperi 2000a, 2011, Del Guasta 2001, Lorenzini & al. 2003, Landi & Loppi 2003, Loppi & Frati 2004, Frati & al. 2006b, 2007, Stofer 2006, Nali & al. 2007, Paoli & Loppi 2008, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Brunialti & Frati 2010 Nascimbene & al. 2012, 2015, Paoli & al. 2012, 2012b, 2013, 2015d, Benesperi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Brackel 2015), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Ciotti & al. 2009, Brackel 2015), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera 2008b, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Paoli & al. 2011, 2015), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Falco Scampatelli 2005).
Description: Thallus minutely foliose, bright lemon yellow to yellow-green in shade, forming rosettes to 1 cm wide, often coalescing into extensive colonies. Lobes narrow, 0.1-0.4(-1) mm wide, adnate or ascending, dorsiventral, often densely imbricate, with granular blastidia most common on the more or less fan-shaped ends. Upper cortex c. 10-30 µm thick; medulla white, very thin; lower cortex c. 20 µm thick. Lower surface white to pinkish, somewhat shiny; with simple, white rhizines. Apothecia rare, sessile, to c. 1 mm diam., with a yellow, plane to finally convex disc, and a smooth but often sorediate or lobulate margin. Epithecium yellow-brown, granular; hymenium colourless, c. 60-90 µm tall; paraphyses simple, cylindrical to submoniliform, with up to 5 µm wide tips; hypothecium colourless, c. 50 µm thick. Asci >30-spored, clavate, Candelaria-type. Ascospores simple or thinly 1-septate, uni- or biguttulate, hyaline, 6-14 x 4-6 µm. Pycnidia appearing as raised warts on the thallus surface. Conidia ellipsoid, 2-3 x 1-1.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: all negative. Chemistry: calycin (major) and pulvinic dilactone (minor).
Note: a mild-temperate, probably holarctic species found on nutrient-rich or -enriched bark, more rarely on calciferous substrata, mostly on isolated trees in agricultural areas, on wayside trees, etc., below the subalpine belt; rare in the Mediterranean belt, and less common along the Adriatic side of the Peninsula. See also note on C. pacifica.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: common
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

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4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

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3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

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5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14895], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Faurndau, Friedof, 48,70390° N, 9,61455° E, 314 m; TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 21.05.2009, det. Schumm 21.05.2009


M. Cesa; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34819)
2002/02/06


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36220)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36220)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36220)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (32143)
2008.03.03



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017


M. Cesa; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34819)
2002/02/06



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14895], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Faurndau, Friedof, 48,70390° N, 9,61455° E, 314 m; TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 21.05.2009, det. Schumm 21.05.2009



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14895], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Faurndau, Friedof, 48,70390° N, 9,61455° E, 314 m; TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 21.05.2009, det. Schumm 21.05.2009



Elena Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Via Valerio.
Herbarium: TSB (41017)
04/05/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14895], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Faurndau, Friedof, 48,70390° N, 9,61455° E, 314 m; TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 21.05.2009, det. Schumm 21.05.2009



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19658], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, Parkplatz Rotkreuz, an gefällter Fagus, am Buhwiesenweg, 48.75136° N, 9.58484° E, 475 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 06.08.2017



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42465



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42499



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42499