Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 196, 1912. Basionym: Lecanora vitellina var. reflexa Nyl. - Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 16: 241, 1866.
Synonyms: Caloplaca reflexa (Nyl.) Flagey; Lecanora reflexa (Nyl.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002 Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Castello & Skert 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2009b, Bernini & al. 2010), Ven (Nimis & al. 1996c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2007, 2008e, 2012, 2015, Nascimbene & Marini 2010), TAA (Nascimbene 2006c, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Lang 2009, Zarabska & al. 2009, Brackel 2013, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010, Brackel 2013), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Piervittori 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Sallese 2003, Marconi & al. 2006, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Cioffi 2009, Benesperi 2009, Malavasi 2014, Gerdol & al. 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi & Corsini 1995, 2003, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, 2001, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2003, 2004, 2006, Loppi 1996, 1996b, 1999a, 1998b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Monaci & al. 1997, Putortì & al. 1998, 1999, Bacci & al. 2000, Benesperi 2000a, Paoli & Loppi 2001, Frati & al. 2006b, 2007, Paoli & Loppi 2008, Loppi & Nascimbene 2010, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Nascimbene & al. 2012, 2015, Paoli & al. 2012, 2012b, 2013, 2015d, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera & Genovesi 2008), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Recchia & Villa 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2015, Caporale & al. 2016, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Paoli & al. 2015), Sar (Zedda 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Paoli & al. 2006, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Merlo 1993, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Brackel 2008c).
Description: Thallus crustose-subsquamulose, bright yellow to greenish yellow in shade-forms, of minute, 0.2-0.8(-1) mm wide, scattered to mostly contiguous, flattened, ireegularly lobulate squamules which may cover large surfaces on the trunks. Central parts of squamules soon giving rise to yellow, finely granular (0.05-0.07 mm diam.) soredia which usually entirely cover the upper surface, giving the thallus a subleprose appearance. Apothecia very rare, 0.5-1 mm across, yellow, with a flat to convex disc and a thin, smooth to sorediate margin. Epithecium yellowish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless; paraphyses cylindrical, parallel, some of them branched in upper part. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Candelaria-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, sometimes slightly curved, 10-17 x 4.5-5.5 µm. Pycnidia immersed in the squamules, the wall colourless. Conidia oblong to ellipsoid, c. 3 x 1.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: pulvinic acid derivatives.
Note: a mild-temperate, holarctic lichen found on isolated trees, especially along waysides and in agricultural areas, somehow rarer along the Adriatic side of the Peninsula, and rare throughout Mediterranean Italy, very common elsewhere in the submediterranean belt.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: rather common
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Harry Taylor; Owner: Natural History Museum London



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (17749)
2001/11/19



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (17749)
2002/05/13



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21
with several other lichens



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20966)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20966)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20966)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20966)
2008.03.03