Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.

Bull. Herb. Boissier, 2: 47, 1894. Basionym: Patellaria vitellina Hoffm. - Descr. Pl. Cl. Crypt. 2, 1: 56, 1791.
Synonyms: Callopisma vitellinum (Hoffm.) Mudd; Caloplaca vitellina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.; Candelaria vitellina (Hoffm.) A. Massal.; Candelariella flavovirella (Nyl.) Lettau; Candelariella henrici B. de Lesd.?; Candelariella vitellina var. corrusca (Ach.) Ozenda & Clauzade; Gyalolechia vitellina (Hoffm.) Anzi; Lecanora vitellina (Hoffm.) Ach.; Verrucaria vitellina (Hoffm.) Hoffm.; Xanthoria vitellina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.; Zeora vitellina var. corruscans (Ach.) Flot.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005, Tretiach & al. 2007b, 2012), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Castello & Skert 2005), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006c, 2008b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, Lang 2009), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004, Brackel 2013, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2005b, 2004, 2007, Favero-Longo & al. 2004, 2005, 2006b, 2009b, 2013, 2015, 2015b, Isocrono & Ferrarese 2008, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Accattino & al. 2012, 2013, Giordani & al. 2014), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004, Valcuvia 2000, Revel & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008c, 2013b, 2015c, Isocrono & al. 2008, Favero-Longo & Piervittori 2009), Emil (Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Roccardi 2006, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Monaci & al. 1997, Loppi & al. 2002, 2003, 2006, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Benesperi 2011, Paoli & al. 2012, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006, Lastrucci & al. 2009), Laz (Bartoli 1997b Roccardi 2003, 2001, Ruisi & al. 2005, Roccardi & Ricci 2006, Pietrini & al. 2008, Genovesi & al. 2011, Zucconi & al. 2013), Abr (Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Nöske 2000, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Giordani & al. 2013, Cossu 2013, Cossu & al. 2015, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Paoli & al. 2006, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Merlo 1993, 2004b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Poli & al. 1995, 1998, Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello 1996, Grillo & al. 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Poli & Grillo 2000, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Brackel 2008b, 2008c, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014, Di Martino & Stancanelli 2015).
Description: Thallus crustose to subsquamulose, of scattered to pulvinate, greenish yellow to orange-yellow granules/areoles 0.3-2 mm wide, the marginal ones sometimes indistinctly lobed. Cortex pseudoparenchymatous, 7-15 µm thick. Apothecia common, 0.3-1 mm across, with a yellow to grey-yellow, flat to somewhat convex disc and a thin to thick, entire to crenulate, persistent margin. Proper exciple often visible from the outside; epithecium yellow-brown; hymenium colourless, 55-75 µm tall; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched in upper part, cylindrical or with weakly swollen tips, up to 3.5 µm wide; hypothecium colourless. Asci (12-)16-24(-32)-spored, clavate, with an apical dome which is I+ blue only in the internal, lower part, interrupted in the centre by a a paler blue strip, Candelaria-type. Ascospores 1-celled to 1-septate, hyaline, oblong to ellipsoid, 8-15 x 3-6.5 µm. Pycnidia sparse, appearing as darker yellow spots on the thallus. Conidia hyaline, bacilliform, 2.5-3 x 1-1.5 µm. Spot tests: thallus and apothecia K- or K+ reddish-orange, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: calycin, pulvinic acid, pulvinic dilactone and vulpinic acid.
Note: a holarctic, almost cosmopolitan lichen with a wide ecological range, found on a wide variety of siliceous rocks, on roofing tiles, brick, and sometimes on bryophytes, lignum and acid bark, both in natural habitats and inside large conurbations.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely common
Subalpine belt: extremely common
Oromediterranean belt: extremely common
Montane belt: extremely common
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: rather common
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

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3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

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5





P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 12769



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35710)
2003/01/22



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (12769)
2002/05/13


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Paolo Fontanesi, Reggio Emilia; Owner: Paolo Fontanesi, Reggio Emilia



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6867], Spanien, Kanarische Inseln, Gran Canaria; an der Strasse von El Tablero zum Embalse de Chira oberhalb Cercados de Espinas; trockener, steiniger Hang mit Echium, Kleinia und Euphorbia; 27°50.780’ N, 15°39.202’ W, Höhe 600 m, an Felsen. Leg. F. Schumm & U. Schwarz, 05.01.2000, det. A. Aptroot 2016



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6867], Spanien, Kanarische Inseln, Gran Canaria; an der Strasse von El Tablero zum Embalse de Chira oberhalb Cercados de Espinas; trockener, steiniger Hang mit Echium, Kleinia und Euphorbia; 27°50.780’ N, 15°39.202’ W, Höhe 600 m, an Felsen. Leg. F. Schumm & U. Schwarz, 05.01.2000, det. A. Aptroot 2016



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.


Miris Castello - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences - University of Trieste
Antarctica, Terra Nova Bay.
Herbarium: TSB - Antarctic Herbarium


Miris Castello - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences - University of Trieste
Antarctica, Terra Nova Bay.
Herbarium: TSB - Antarctic Herbarium


Miris Castello - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences - University of Trieste
Antarctica, Terra Nova Bay.
Herbarium: TSB - Antarctic Herbarium


Miris Castello - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences - University of Trieste
Antarctica, Terra Nova Bay.
Herbarium: TSB - Antarctic Herbarium


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17089], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, an der Straße von Hornberg nach Schramberg, Abbiegung zum Käppelehof. 48,22853° N, 8,31805° E, 670 m. An Granit. Leg. et det. Schumm 07.07.2010.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37211



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38602



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38602