Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 79, 1852. Basionym: Lecidea chalybeia Borrer in Hooker & Sowerby - Engl. Bot. Suppl. 1: tab. 2687, 1831.
Synonyms: Biatora deplanatula Müll. Arg.; Biatorina baliola (Nyl.) Hellb.; Biatorina chalybeia (Borrer) Mudd; Biatorina lenticularis var. chalybeia (Borrer) Anzi; Biatorina lenticularis var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) A.L. Sm.; Biatorina nubila Norman; Biatorina pleiospora J. Steiner; Buellia chalybeia (Borrer) Bagl.; Catillaria chalybeia var. chloropoliza (Nyl.) H. Kilias; Catillaria chloroscotina (Nyl.) Arnold; Catillaria doliocarpa (Müll. Arg.) Arnold; Catillaria lenticularis var. vulgaris (Körb.) Th. Fr.; Catillaria nigroclavata var. baliola (Nyl.) Zahlbr.; Catillaria pleiospora (J. Steiner) J. Steiner; Lecidea baliola Nyl.; Lecidea deplanatula (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.; Lecidea spodoplaca Nyl.; Microlecia chalybeia (Borrer) M. Choisy; Patellaria doliocarpa Müll. Arg.; Thalloidima rechingeri Szatala?
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (TSB 2894), Ven (Nascimbene 2008c), TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Giordani & al. 2014, Favero-Longo & al. 2015), VA (Matteucci & al. 2015c), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Putortì & al. 1998), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Massari & Ravera 2002), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Nöske 2000, Zedda 2002, 2002b, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Giordani & al. 2013, Neuwirth 2018). S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, thinly episubstratic or poorly evident, beige or dirty white to more usually dark olivaceous to blackish grey, continuous to cracked-areolate, sometimes delimited by a dark prothallus, forming 1-3(-6) cm wide patches. Apothecia lecideine, (0.15-)0.2-0.5(-1) mm across, broadly adnate to sessile and constricted at base, with a black to (rarely) dark brown, epruinose, concave to finally slightly convex disc, and a slightly raised, smooth, usually persistent proper margin. Proper exciple green-black at least in a broad marginal region; epithecium dark brown to (greenish-)black, 8-15(-20) µm high; hymenium colourless, often more or less blue-green in lower part and at the edge of exciple, 40-70 µm high, I+ persistently blue or turning wine-red; paraphyses mostly simple, lax, 1.5-2 µm thick, the apical cells capitate, to 6 µm wide, with a dark brown to black cap, the pigment deposited within the cell walls; hypothecium pale to dark brown, mostly blue-green in upper part, 60-130(-150) µm high. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, with a K/I+ blue outer coat and a K/I+ uniformly blue apical dome, Catillaria-type. Ascospores 1-septate, hyaline, oblong-ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, (7-)9-12(-15) x (2.5-)3-4(-5) µm. Pycnidia black, immersed, round-ellipsoid, the wall dark green. Conidia ovoid- to short-bacilliform, 1.8-3.5 x 0.5-0.8(-1.2) µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-; green pigment in apothecia K-, N+ purple-red. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances.
Note: a holarctic, subtropical to arctic, facultatively lichenised species found on a wide range of siliceous substrata, including roofing tiles and brick, and even on gypsum, in sheltered situations and also on periodically inundated rocks, common both in natural and urban areas, especially on walls (e.g. present within the urban area of Rome). There is also a calcicolous ecotype (see Roux & coll. 2014) which is likely to occur also in Italy. The records from Toscana by Loppi & al. (1999a, 2002c), on trees, are probably erroneous.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43697



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12278], Griechenland, N-Samos, bei Manolates südlich von Agios Konstandinos, 37°47.185'N, 26°49.533'E, 341 m; halbschattige bis besonnte Terrassenmauern; Glimmerschiefer. Leg. Schumm 02.05.2006.
Identif. by PL Nimis



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12278], Griechenland, N-Samos, bei Manolates südlich von Agios Konstandinos, 37°47.185'N, 26°49.533'E, 341 m; halbschattige bis besonnte Terrassenmauern; Glimmerschiefer. Leg. Schumm 02.05.2006.
Identif. by PL Nimis



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12278], Griechenland, N-Samos, bei Manolates südlich von Agios Konstandinos, 37°47.185'N, 26°49.533'E, 341 m; halbschattige bis besonnte Terrassenmauern; Glimmerschiefer. Leg. Schumm 02.05.2006.
Identif. by PL Nimis



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12278], Griechenland, N-Samos, bei Manolates südlich von Agios Konstandinos, 37°47.185'N, 26°49.533'E, 341 m; halbschattige bis besonnte Terrassenmauern; Glimmerschiefer. Leg. Schumm 02.05.2006.
Identif. by PL Nimis


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Manuel Gil
Spain, Canary Islands, Lanzarote


Manuel Gil
Spain, Canary Islands, Lanzarote



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (8742)
2001/11/22



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43697



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43697



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34628)
2002/01/22