Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 250, 1860. Basionym: Calicium chrysocephalum Turner ex Ach. - Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 15, 1803.
Synonyms: Calicium chrysocephalum var. filare Ach.; Chaenotheca chrysocephala var. filaris (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Cyphelium chrysocephalum (Ach.) De Not.; Phacotium chrysocephalum (Ach.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - Frl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2013b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006c, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Stofer 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Stofer 2006, Abramini & al. 2008, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001), Lig (TSB 33638). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Umb (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Laz (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Abr (Stofer 2006), Sar (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009). S - Camp (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, bright yellow, of rounded, coarse, ecorticate granules or warts forming a more or less continuous crust. Outermost part of granules densely inspersed with minute, yellow crystals. Apothecia frequent, developing from the lower side of granules, stalked and pin-like, 0.6-1.3 mm tall. Stalk 0.04-0.08 mm diam., black to pale brown, with a yellow pruina at least in the upper part. Capitulum obovoid to obconical, 0.15-0.3 mm diam.; exciple well developed, with a dense yellowish green pruina on the lower side; hypothecium broadly obconical, with a flat or slightly concave upper surface. Asci cylindrical, 14-19 x 2-3.5 µm, with a 5-9 µm long, narrow stalk, producing an indefinite number of ascospores, arising singly from ascogenous hyphae with hooks. Ascospores 1-celled, brown, uniseriate, short ellipsoid to globose, 7-9 x 4-5 µm, with a coarse and irregular ornamentation, accumulating at the surface of the ascomata. Conidia 1-celled, 2-3 x 1 µm. Photobiont trebouxioid, with isodiametric cells. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: apothecial pruina and thallus with vulpinic acid.
Note: a boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on the acid bark of both broad-leaved trees and conifers, more rarely on hard lignum, with optimum on Larix near treeline.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

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5

Solar irradiation:

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5

Aridity:

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5

Eutrophication:

(info)

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5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

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Altitudinal distribution:

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5





D. Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36839)
2008.02.23



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36839)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33638)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33638)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33638)
2008.03.06


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37226



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41900



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41900



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33638)
2008.03.06



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41898



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41900


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11525)
2001/12/05