Circinaria calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell

Mycologia, 102: 1341, 2010. Basionym: Lichen calcareus L. - Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.
Synonyms: Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl.; Aspicilia calcarea f. opegraphoides (DC.) J. Kickx f.; Aspicilia calcarea var. concreta (Schaer.) Hepp; Aspicilia contorta var. calcarea (L.) Körb.; Aspicilia lundensis (Fr.) Uloth; Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf.; Lecanora calcarea var. concreta Schaer.; Lecanora lundensis (Fr.) Zahlbr.; Pachyospora calcarea (L.) A. Massal.; Urceolaria calcarea (L.) Ach.; Urceolaria calcarea var. farinosa Flörke non auct.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998, Nascimbene & al. 2009b), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Nascimbene 2003, 2008b, Spitale & Nascimbene 2012), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, Morisi 2005, Morando & al. 2016), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Roccardi 2006, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, 2006, Paoli & al. 2014b, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2003, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Bartoli 1997b, Bartoli & al. 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Roccardi & Ricci 2006, Roccardi 2006, 2011, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2009, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Brackel 2020), Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Monte & Ferrari 1996, Ottonello 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, 2005, 2006, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, 2009, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Merlo 2004b, Genco & al. 2007, Brackel 2008b, 2008c, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Liistro & Cataldo 2011, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, chalky white to rarely white-grey, 0.25-0.8 mm thick, finely rimose-areolate, sometimes delimited by a white to grey, more or less zoned prothallus, forming orbicular patches up to 30 cm in diam. Areoles angular, smooth, the peripheral ones often longer than wide and radially arranged. Cortex entirely filled by crystals visible under polarized light, its structure therefore poorly visible, lacking pigments; algal layer 30-65 µm high; medulla white, filled by crystals of calcium carbonate, 0.17-0.3 mm thick, I-. Apothecia lecanorine-aspicilioid, immersed, 1(-4) per areole, irregular in size and shape, from punctiform to angular or even linear, 0.15-0.7(-1) mm wide, with a concave to flat, black, sometimes slightly white-pruinose disc, and an up to 0.15 mm thick, chalky white, slightly raised, finally often excluded thalline margin. Epithecium olive-green, N+ brigher green, K+ brown; hymenium colourless, I+ blue soon turning red-brown; paraphyses septate and anastomosing, sometimes moniliform in upper part; hypothecium colourless. Asci (2-)4-spored, clavate, the thin outer coat K/I+ blue, the wall and apical dome K/I-. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 18-30 x 14-28 µm. Pycnidia immersed, appearing as black dots. Conidia (6-)7.5-10(-11.5) x 1(-1.5)µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: aspicilin.
Note: a mainly Mediterranean to mild-temperate species found on limestone and dolomite, sometimes also on other calciferous substrata, much rarer in heavily disturbed habitats (stunted specimens, however, may grow on ancient monuments in the centre of Rome), sometimes reaching beyond treeline, especially in the Apennines.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: rather common
Montane belt: very common
Submediterranean belt: extremely common
Padanian area: rare
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely common
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

(info)

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38155



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (32108)
2001/12/03


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05


Christian Fontaine; Owner: Christian Fontaine
Belgique, Villers-la-Ville
22.10.2009



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Val Rosandra, San Lorenzo near Belvedere
11/02/2017



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Val Rosandra, San Lorenzo near Belvedere
11/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16503], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Kreis Göppingen, Gosbach-Bad Ditzenbach, 48,57461° N, 9,68471° E, 737 m, auf Kalkfelsen beim Tierstein. Leg. et det. Schumm 26.06.2010



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (21852)
2001/12/03
detail of apothecia