Cladonia chlorophaea (Sommerf.) Spreng.

Syst. Veg., 4, 1: 273, 1827. Basionym: Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf. - Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 130, 1826.
Synonyms: Cladonia costata Flörke; Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) Arnold; Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) Flörke
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Tomasi 2007), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2014), Lomb (Stofer 2006, Gheza 2015), Piem, VA, Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2020), Laz, Abr (Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Sar (Nöske 2000, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Jatta 1909-1911), Cal (Stofer 2006), Si (Czezuga & al. 1994, Brackel 2008b).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, persistent, the squamules small to middle-sized. 3-4(-6) mm long and almost as broad), incised to crenate, greyish-green above, white beneath, but darkening towards the base, sometimes with granular soredia along the margins. Podetia frequent, hollow inside, greyish-green, often somewhat browned, non melanotic at the base, esquamulose, 0.5-3(-4) cm tall, ecorticate or corticate only at the base, with broad (to 1.2 cm) cups gradually tapered to a short stalk, regular or proliferating marginally, granulose-sorediate above and inside the cups, the soredia 60-170 μm in diam., often mixed with corticate granules and microsquamules, the surface becoming denuded with age. Apothecia frequent, on the margin of the cups, brown, stipitate, convex, often arranged in up to 5 mm wide clusters. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed in small teeth along the margins of cups, often constricted at base, with a colourless jelly. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: substances of the fumarprotocetraric acid complex, often with quaesitic acid and unknown fatty acids.
Note: this species belongs to a group of taxa containing only substances of the fumarprotocetraric acid complex. The main discriminating features are the presence of granular soredia on the outer and inner surfaces of the cups and the non-melanotic base of podetia. The discrimination towards C. pyxidata, C. fimbriata and other species of the complex is not always easy, and most records require re-confirmation.
Growth form: Fruticose

Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather common
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: rather common
Montane belt: very common
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

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Poleotolerance:

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Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18914], Frankreich, Vogesen, zwischen Colmar und Gerardmer, Col de la Schlucht, nahe Centre de ski de fond; 48.0622° N, 7.02068° E, 1140 m. Leg. F. Schumm 25.06.2013



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (7080)
2003/03/06


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[339], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Rems-Murr-Kreis, Stetten an der Rems, Überlandzentrale, an alten Stubben, TK: 7222. Leg. E. Putzler 15.03.1947, det. O. Klement



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[339], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Rems-Murr-Kreis, Stetten an der Rems, Überlandzentrale, an alten Stubben, TK: 7222. Leg. E. Putzler 15.03.1947, det. O. Klement



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16039], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, N 32°45.699, W 17°8.051, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16039], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, N 32°45.699, W 17°8.051, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18914], Frankreich, Vogesen, zwischen Colmar und Gerardmer, Col de la Schlucht, nahe Centre de ski de fond; 48.0622° N, 7.02068° E, 1140 m. Leg. F. Schumm 25.06.2013



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18914], Frankreich, Vogesen, zwischen Colmar und Gerardmer, Col de la Schlucht, nahe Centre de ski de fond; 48.0622° N, 7.02068° E, 1140 m. Leg. F. Schumm 25.06.2013



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18914], Frankreich, Vogesen, zwischen Colmar und Gerardmer, Col de la Schlucht, nahe Centre de ski de fond; 48.0622° N, 7.02068° E, 1140 m. Leg. F. Schumm 25.06.2013



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18914], Frankreich, Vogesen, zwischen Colmar und Gerardmer, Col de la Schlucht, nahe Centre de ski de fond; 48.0622° N, 7.02068° E, 1140 m. Leg. F. Schumm 25.06.2013



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19492], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, NW von Baiersbronn, ca. 2 km oberhalb Obertal. 48.54692° N, 8.27071° E, 720 m. Leg- F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19492], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, NW von Baiersbronn, ca. 2 km oberhalb Obertal. 48.54692° N, 8.27071° E, 720 m. Leg- F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[339], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Rems-Murr-Kreis, Stetten an der Rems, Überlandzentrale, an alten Stubben, TK: 7222. Leg. E. Putzler 15.03.1947, det. O. Klement,
von Diploschistes: le: lecanoric acid, di: diploschistesic acid; von Cladonia: f: fumarprotocetraric acid, p: protocetraric acid



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16039], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, N 32°45.699, W 17°8.051, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.,
HPTLC in den Laufmitteln A, B’ und C nach Säurebehandlung bei Tageslicht und 366 nm UVLangwelle. 1: Start 4: Position von Norstictinsäure 7: Position von Atranorin pr: Protocetrarsäure fpr: Fumarprotocetrarsäure


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/