Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng.

Syst. Veg., 4, 1: 272, 1827. Basionym: Cenomyce coniocraea Flörke - Deutsche Lich., 7: 14, 1821.
Synonyms: Cladonia apolepta (Ach.) H.M.M. Hansen & M. Lund; Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Schaer.; Cladonia fimbriata var. coniocraea (Flörke) Nyl.; Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. var. notabilis Müll. Arg.; Cladonia lepidula Kremp.; Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke; Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke var. pycnotheliza (Nyl.) Harm.; Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke var. spadicea Müll. Arg.; Cladonia pergracilis Kremp.; Cladonia pycnotheliza Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Brackel 2013), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007, 2007b, 2009c, 2010b, 2013b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Gottardini & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2008c, 2009, 2010, 2014, Lang 2009, Watson 2014, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2010, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2015), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006, Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & Ferrarese 2008, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Matteucci & al. 2010, Gheza 2015), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001, Furlanetto 2010), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Watson 2014, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997b, 2004c, 2006, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Senese & Critelli 2000, Benesperi 2006, 2011, Benesperi & al. 2007, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, 2013, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012, 2015d, Brackel 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015, Gheza & al. 2020), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Poponessi & al. 2014), Laz (Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Zucconi & al. 2013), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Brackel 2020), Sar (Zedda & al. 2010, Cogoni & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Stofer 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, usually persistent, the squamules middle-sized, 1-5 mm long, crenate to entire, convex to concave, grey, olive-green or brownish in upper part, white beneath, often becoming sorediate. Podetia grey-green (whitish in the parts where the soredia have fallen off), bacilliform, corticate only at base, 1-2(-3) cm tall, 0.5-1(-1.5) mm thick, usually unbranched and with pointed ends, only occasionally with very small cups, with a corticate and sometimes squamulose zone in lower part, farinose-sorediate in upper part, the soredia 20-50 μm in diam.. Apothecia rather rare, terminal, brown, convex. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark brown to black, semi-immersed in the tips of podetia, often also developing on the primary squamules. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red; medulla UV-. Chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid, rarely also quaesitic acid.
Note: a widespread holarctic species found on a wide variety of organic substrata, incl. bark, and then mostly on the basal parts of boles, but mostly on soil rich in humus and rotten wood, with a wide altitudinal range. According to Burgaz & al. (2020), molecular data do not confirm the distinction at species level of the morphologically and chemically very similar C. ochrochlora, which is therefore treated here as a synonym of C. coniocraea.
Growth form: Fruticose

Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

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Solar irradiation:

(info)

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Aridity:

(info)

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Eutrophication:

(info)

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Poleotolerance:

(info)

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Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

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Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10747)
2001/12/24
tip of podetium



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19628], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Zell bei Börtlingen, im Marbachtal, auf Holzzaun am Blockhausweg, 48.7572° N, 9.6447° E, 365 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 27.03.2017.


Einar Timdal - Source: http://nhm2.uio.no/lav/web/index.html - CC BY-NC



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 10747


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Azzone, 1450 m
25/10/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Azzone, 1450 m
25/10/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Azzone, 1450 m
25/10/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Azzone, 1450 m
25/10/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Brescia, Borno, 1300 m
08/2011