Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. subsp. furcata

Spicil. Fl. Germ.: 107, 1794. Basionym: Lichen furcatus Huds. - Fl. Angl.: 458, 1762.
Synonyms: Cladonia furcata var. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl.; Cladonia furcata var. palamaea (Ach.) Nyl.; Cladonia furcata var. pinnata (Flörke) Vain.; Cladonia furcata var. racemosa (Hoffm.) Flörke; Cladonia racemosa Hoffm.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000b, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Brackel 2013, Giovagnoli & Tasinazzo 2014), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2005b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2006, 2008c, Lang 2009), Lomb (Rossi 1991, Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Morisi 2005, Assini 2007, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2015), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006, Isocrono & Ferrarese 2008), VA (Siniscalco 1995, Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Watson 2014, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1997b, 2004c, Putortì & al. 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, 2006, 2011, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2020), Marc, Umb (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b, Brackel 2015), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Nöske 2000, Zedda & al. 2010, Cogoni & al. 2011, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, 2004, Brackel 2011), Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1995, Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Merlo 2004, 2004b, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, the squamules mostly ephemeral, middle-sized, 1-4 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, crenate, ascending, glaucescent above, white beneath. Podetia elongate, hollow inside, anisotomically branched, up to 8(-10) cm tall, 0.7-2 mm thick, greenish-grey to brown in sun-forms, forming irregular and loose tufts, with pointed apices and a smooth surface, sparsely squamulose, the squamules 2-3 mm long anc c. 2 mm wide; fertile podetia thicker, often perforate, the tips longitudinally fissurate, flattened, sometimes forming a pseudo-cup with involute margins. Apothecia rare, dark brown, convex, sometimes arranged in corymbose clusters. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed on the tips of podetia, with a colourless jelly. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests and chemistry: chemically variable, with the following chemotypes (all of them C-, KC-, UV-): 1) K-, P+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid complex, sometimes with traces of physodalic and/or hypoprotocetraric acids), 2) K-, P+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid complex and bourgeanic acid), 3) K-, P+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid complex, psoromic and conpsoromic acids), 4) K+ yellow, P+ red (atranorin, fumarprotocetraric acid complex), 5) K+ yellow, P+ yellow (atranorin, psoromic and conpsoromic acids), 6) K-, P+ yellow (psoromic and conpsoromic acids), 7) K+ yellow, P– (atranorin and bourgeanic acid, with traces of fumarprotocetraric acid).
Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on soil, amongst mosses, sometimes on bark and lignum, in areas with calcareous or siliceous base-rich rocks, with a wide altitudinal range; surprisingly rare along the Adriatic part of the Peninsula. The species, in the present circumscription, is heterogeneous.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rare
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

(info)

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19479], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, an der Ruhsteinstraße 1 km NW der Darmstädter Hütte und 2.4 km SE vom Mummelsee, Granitbkockhalde. 48.58035° N, 8,22090° E, 930 m, Granitblockhalde. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm.
var. pinnata



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11461)
2001/12/04
detail of squamules on podetia


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, UD, Comune di Sauris, Bosco della Stua presso il Lago
2008.26.08



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, UD, Comune di Sauris, Bosco della Stua presso il Lago
2008.26.08



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, UD, Comune di Sauris, Bosco della Stua presso il Lago
2008.26.08


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18965], Australia, New South Wales, Polblue Swamp, Barrington Tops State Forest, 50 km west-north-west of Gloucester, 31°58' S, 151°26' E, 1450 m, growing on soil beneath shrubs, swampy area. Leg. J.A. Elix (22903) & H. Streimann, 25.04.1990



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18965], Australia, New South Wales, Polblue Swamp, Barrington Tops State Forest, 50 km west-north-west of Gloucester, 31°58' S, 151°26' E, 1450 m, growing on soil beneath shrubs, swampy area. Leg. J.A. Elix (22903) & H. Streimann, 25.04.1990



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18965], Australia, New South Wales, Polblue Swamp, Barrington Tops State Forest, 50 km west-north-west of Gloucester, 31°58' S, 151°26' E, 1450 m, growing on soil beneath shrubs, swampy area. Leg. J.A. Elix (22903) & H. Streimann, 25.04.1990



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19479], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, an der Ruhsteinstraße 1 km NW der Darmstädter Hütte und 2.4 km SE vom Mummelsee, Granitbkockhalde. 48.58035° N, 8,22090° E, 930 m, Granitblockhalde. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm.
var. pinnata



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19479], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, an der Ruhsteinstraße 1 km NW der Darmstädter Hütte und 2.4 km SE vom Mummelsee, Granitbkockhalde. 48.58035° N, 8,22090° E, 930 m, Granitblockhalde. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm.
var. pinnata



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8568], PORTUGAL, MADEIRA, Ribeiro Frio, unmittelbar an der Straße oberhalb des Rastplatzes, Nordhang mit Lorbeerwald, N 32°44.072, W 16°53.230, 903 m. Leg. F. Schumm 14.04.2001, det Schumm, conf. Aptroot 2010.,
HPTLC in den Laufmitteln A, B’ und C nach Säurebehandlung bei Tageslicht und 366 nm UVLangwelle. 1: Start, 4: Position von Norstictinsäure 7: Position von Atranorin pr: Protocetrarsäure, fpr: Fumarprotocetrarsäure


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18169], Brasilien, Rio de Janeiro, Serra da Mantiqueira, Itatiaia, zwischen Registro do Picú und Agulhas Negras, am Rande eines dichten, feuchten Bergregenwaldes, zwischen Moosen, 2200 m, 22°20’ S, 44°45’ W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 23.07.1978, det. T. Ahti. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 214.


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[18169], Brasilien, Rio de Janeiro, Serra da Mantiqueira, Itatiaia, zwischen Registro do Picú und Agulhas Negras, am Rande eines dichten, feuchten Bergregenwaldes, zwischen Moosen, 2200 m, 22°20’ S, 44°45’ W. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 23.07.1978, det. T. Ahti. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 214.


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38706


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Italy, Lombardia, Sondrio, Pian Gembro, 1400 m
08/2018


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Italy, Lombardia, Brescia, Sonico, 1350 m
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