Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd.

Fl. Berol. Prodr.: 363, 1787. Basionym: Lichen gracilis L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1152, 1753.
Synonyms: Cladonia chordalis (Flörke) Nyl.; Cladonia elongata (Wulfen) Hoffm.; Cladonia gracilis subsp. elongata (Wulfen) Vain.; Cladonia gracilis subsp. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti; Cladonia gracilis subsp. turbinata (Ach.) Ahti; Cladonia gracilis var. aspera Flörke; Cladonia gracilis var. chordalis (Flörke) Schaer.; Cladonia gracilis var. nigripes (Nyl.) Ahti; Cladonia nigripes (Nyl.) Trass
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000b), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2008c, Brackel 2013), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Revel & al. 2001), Emil (Ferrari & al. 1994, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc, Abr. S - Si.
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, often persistent only at the base of podetia or ephemeral, the squamules ascending, small to middle-sized 2-5 mm long, 0.8-5 mm wide, irregularly crenate or lobed, glaucescent to olive-green above, white beneath. Podetia slender and elongate, hollow inside, greenish glaucescent in shade-forms to brownish grey or dark brown, non- or scarcely squamulose, 4-8(-12) cm tall, 0.5-1.5 mm thick (fertile podetia to 2 mm thick), unbranched or sparingly branched, pointed or with small, rapidly flaring, closed, toothed cups, smooth, corticate-areolate, the cortex continuous or disrupted into flat areoles separated by white lines. Apothecia rare, brown, convex, terminal or on the margins of cups. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed, on the margins of the cups or at the tip of cupless podetia, with a colourless jelly. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: substances of the fumarprotocetraric acid complex.
Note: a circumpolar, cool-temperate to southern arctic lichen found on acid soil, more rarely on decaying wood in upland areas. According to Ahti (in litt.) its presence in Italy is dubious, and most records from the Alps could refer to C. macroceras. A revision of Italian material is much needed.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10785)
2001/12/04
detail of cups


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/