Cladonia macroceras (Delise) Hav.

Bergens Mus. ?rbok, Naturvid. Rekke, 1927, 3: 12, 1928. Basionym: Cenomyce gracilis var. macroceras Delise in Duby - Bot. Gall., 2: 624, 1830.
Synonyms: Cladonia elongata auct. p.p.; Cladonia gracilis var. macroceras (Delise) Flot.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2008b, 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2008c, Lang 2009, Bilovitz & al. 2014, 2014b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Rossi & al. 1998, Valcuvia & al. 2000d, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Watson 2014), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2004), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, often ephemeral but sometimes persistent and forming a bullate crust, the squamules middle-sized (1-4 mm), thick, esorediate, grey green to brown above, white beneath. Podetia robust and elongate, hollow inside, brownish grey to dark brown, becoming reddish brown to almost black at base, up to 15 cm tall and 1-4(-6) mm thick, simple or with a few branches starting from near the base, with pointed apices or with narrow, regular cups non- or sparsely squamulose toward the base, continuously corticate, smooth to often wrinked and longitudinally ridged, often somewhat glossy; transverse cracks and white medullary outgrowths often present at the base of podetia. Apothecia rare, brown, convex. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed, ovoid, developing along the margins of cups, with a colourless jelly. Conidia bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests zand chemistry: two chemotypes (both C-, KC- P+ red, UV-)/: 1) K- (fumarprotocetraric acid complex and quaesitic acid). 2) K+ yellow (atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid complex). Chemotype 1) is the most frequent.
Note: a subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen, one of the most abundant species in subalpine Rhododendron heaths throughout the Alps, mostly deeply immersed amongst mosses. See also note on C. gracilis.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather common
Subalpine belt: extremely common
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

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5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

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5




Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (4561)
2002/12/18
tip of podetium with cup



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (17928)
2003/03/06


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)