Cladonia parasitica (Hoffm.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Fl., 2: 127, 1796. Basionym: Lichen parasiticus Hoffm. - Enum. Lich.: 39, 1784.
Synonyms: Cladonia delicata auct.
Distribution: N - VG (TSB 13986), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, 2008b, Nascimbene & al. 2007b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010), Piem (Rizzio & al. 2001, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Gheza 2015, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Matteucci & al. 2008, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2016, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997b, 2004c, Putortì & al. 1999, Benesperi 2000a, 2009, 2011, Senese & Critelli 2000, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Catalano & al. 2016), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2008b, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, persistent, the squamules whitish to pale greenish grey, white beneath, 1-3(5) mm long, 0.2-1(-2) mm broad, very finely divided and often with an almost coralloid appearance, granulose along the margins. Podetia rather rare, hollow inside, whitish grey to pale grey-brown, 1-10(-20) mm tall, deformed and very irregularly branched, fissured, with gaping holes, often covered by isidioid granules and partly decorticated, with scattered to usually numerous, small, dichotomously divided squamules. Apothecia rare, dark brown, convex, often clustered. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed in the upper part of squamules, with a colourless jelly. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow-orange, UV-. Chemistry: thamnolic acid and variable amounts of barbatic acid, the latter only in the apothecia.
Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic species, normally lignicolous, on stumps, sometimes on basal parts of old trunks, with optimum in old Castanea plantations.
Growth form: Fruticose

Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 9411



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9411)
2008.03.04



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10602)
2008.03.04



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (18117)
2008.03.04



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[10755], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Rechberghausen, an Wegrändern im Ödach, Stubensandsteingebiet, Nadelwald, ca. 400 m, TK 7223. Leg. F. Schumm 13.03.1971



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[10755], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Rechberghausen, an Wegrändern im Ödach, Stubensandsteingebiet, Nadelwald, ca. 400 m, TK 7223. Leg. F. Schumm 13.03.1971



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[10755], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Rechberghausen, an Wegrändern im Ödach, Stubensandsteingebiet, Nadelwald, ca. 400 m, TK 7223. Leg. F. Schumm 13.03.1971,
578 Cladonia parasitica 1: barbatic acid, 2: thamnolic acid, 3: 4-O-demethylbarbatic acid, 4: hypothamnolic acid, 5,6: unknown, conf. J.A. Elix


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41507


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Varzi, 650 m
11/2016


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Varzi, 650 m
11/2016


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Varzi, 650 m
11/2016



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 9014