Cladonia portentosa (Dufour) Coëm.

Bull. Acad. R. Belg., sér. 2, 19: 43, 1865. Basionym: Cenomyce portentosa Dufour - Ann. Gén. Sc. Phys. Bruxelles, 8: 69, 1821.
Synonyms: Cladina impexa (Harm.) B. de Lesd.; Cladina portentosa (Dufour) Follmann; Cladonia impexa Harm. nom. illegit.; Cladonia laxiuscula auct.; Cladonia macaronesica Ahti; Cladonia portentosa var. subimpexa (P.A. Duvign.) Ahti; Cladonia spumosa (Flörke) Schade; Cladonia subimpexa P.A. Duvign.
Distribution: N - TAA (Lang 2009, Brackel 2013), Lomb (Ravera & al. 2015, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2015), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, Ravera & al. 2015, Gheza 2015, Ravera & al. 2016), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000, Ravera & al. 2015), Lig (Watson 2014, Ravera & al. 2015, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Ravera & al. 2015), Sar (Ravera & al. 2015).
Description: Primary thallus crustose, ephemeral and rarely seen, consisting of subglobular, small warts. Podetia densely branched and shrubby, hollow inside, pale grey, greenish grey or yellowish green, anisotomically (i.e. main branches thicker) (mainly) trichotomously branched, 4-10 cm tall, ecorticate, with an arachnoid-fibrose surface. Main axis usually distinct at least in lower parts, tips of ramifications subulate, often curved, browned or bluish in exposed situations, erect or mostly spreading in all directions, the axils usually open. Apothecia rare, brown, convex. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed on the tips of podetia, with a colourless slime. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests and chemistry: three chemotypes (all of them K-, C-, KC-, UV+ bluish white): 1) P- (perlatolic and usnic acids), 2) P– (perlatolic acid only), 3) P+ red (fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic and usnic acids). Chemotype 3) is known only from oceanic parts of Atlantic Europe.
Note: a mainly cool-temperate, western species found on acid soil in open situations, such as in Calluna-heaths, more rarely on wood, probably more frequent in the past, presently extinct in many parts of the country. The record from Pantelleria by Ottonello & Romano (1997) and Ottonello & al. (2011) seems dubious to me. The species was assessed as “Endangered” in Italy by Ravera & al. (2015).
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Cerano, valle del Ticino, 105 m
17/02/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15035)
2001/12/04



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15035)
2001/12/04
tips of podetia



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3994], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Sandbruch im oberen Stubensandstein im Wald bei Riemenfeld. Am Rand eines vernäßten, sauren, lichtoffenen, kleinen Waldmoores. Leg. F. Schumm 27.04.1991



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3994], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Sandbruch im oberen Stubensandstein im Wald bei Riemenfeld. Am Rand eines vernäßten, sauren, lichtoffenen, kleinen Waldmoores. Leg. F. Schumm 27.04.1991



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[3994], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Sandbruch im oberen Stubensandstein im Wald bei Riemenfeld. Am Rand eines vernäßten, sauren, lichtoffenen, kleinen Waldmoores. Leg. F. Schumm 27.04.1991,
586 Cladonia portentosa p: perlatolic acid, u: usnic acid



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20288], Germany, Niedersachsen, Nationalpark Harz, Wartenberg, Quarzithalde im Gipfelbereich, ca. 560 m. GK 4404516E / 5751013N, TK:4129/2. Leg,´. H.-U. Kison, 27.6.2017, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3758



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20288], Germany, Niedersachsen, Nationalpark Harz, Wartenberg, Quarzithalde im Gipfelbereich, ca. 560 m. GK 4404516E / 5751013N, TK:4129/2. Leg,´. H.-U. Kison, 27.6.2017, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3758



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20288], Germany, Niedersachsen, Nationalpark Harz, Wartenberg, Quarzithalde im Gipfelbereich, ca. 560 m. GK 4404516E / 5751013N, TK:4129/2. Leg,´. H.-U. Kison, 27.6.2017, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3758
u: usnic acid, p: perlatolic acid



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20290], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Selketal NSG 73, Nordhang des Falkensteinmassivs über Grauwacke, ca. 250 m, GK: 4449033E / 5727957N; TK: 4333/2. Leg H.-U. Kison, 31.10.2015, det. A. Seelemann, conf F. Schumm 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3272 (ursprünglich gemeinsam mit C. arbuscula in gleicher Kapsel).



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20290], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Selketal NSG 73, Nordhang des Falkensteinmassivs über Grauwacke, ca. 250 m, GK: 4449033E / 5727957N; TK: 4333/2. Leg H.-U. Kison, 31.10.2015, det. A. Seelemann, conf F. Schumm 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3272 (ursprünglich gemeinsam mit C. arbuscula in gleicher Kapsel).



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20290], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Selketal NSG 73, Nordhang des Falkensteinmassivs über Grauwacke, ca. 250 m, GK: 4449033E / 5727957N; TK: 4333/2. Leg H.-U. Kison, 31.10.2015, det. A. Seelemann, conf F. Schumm 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3272 (ursprünglich gemeinsam mit C. arbuscula in gleicher Kapsel).
at: atranorin (tr), us: usnic acid, p: perlatolic acid



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20292], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Nationalpark Harz, Schulerhütte auf schlackereichem Boden im Nordteil der Halde, 270 m. GK: 4406312E / 5750225N, TK: 4129/2. Leg. U. Schiefelbein & H.-U. Kison, 11.09.2016, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3567



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20292], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Nationalpark Harz, Schulerhütte auf schlackereichem Boden im Nordteil der Halde, 270 m. GK: 4406312E / 5750225N, TK: 4129/2. Leg. U. Schiefelbein & H.-U. Kison, 11.09.2016, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3567



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20292], Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, Nationalpark Harz, Schulerhütte auf schlackereichem Boden im Nordteil der Halde, 270 m. GK: 4406312E / 5750225N, TK: 4129/2. Leg. U. Schiefelbein & H.-U. Kison, 11.09.2016, det. A. Seelemann, conf. F. Schumm, 2019. DUBL. EX NATIONALPARK HARZ-HERBAR NR. 3567
370 Cladonia portentosa at: atranorin (tr), us: usnic acid, p: perlatolic acid


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Dossi della Lomellina, 91 m
19/04/2021


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Oleggio, valle del Ticino, 162 m,
17/03/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Oleggio, valle del Ticino, 162 m,
17/03/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Oleggio, valle del Ticino, 162 m,
17/03/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Cerano, valle del Ticino, 105 m
17/02/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Cerano, valle del Ticino, 105 m
17/02/2021
mixed with C. rangiformis


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 550 m
03/2017
mixed with C. rangiformis