Cladonia subulata (L.) F.H. Wigg.

Primit. Florae Holsat.: 90, 1780. Basionym: Lichen subulatus L. - Sp. Pl.: 1153, 1753.
Synonyms: Cladonia cornutoradiata (Leight.) Sandst; Cladonia fimbriata var. cornutoradiata (Leight.) Vain.; Cladonia fimbriata var. radiata (Schreb.) Cromb.; Cladonia fimbriata var. subcornuta Nyl. ex Cromb.; Cladonia fimbriata var. subulata (L.) Vain.; Cladonia subulata var. radiata (Schreb.) Ozenda & Clauzade
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2002, 2008, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene 2006c, 2008b), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Burgaz & al. 2019).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, usually evanescent, the squamules very small, 1-2(-5) mm long, 2-3 mm wide, elongate and deeply incised, grey-green to whitish-glaucescent above, white beneath, sometimes sorediate at margins. Podetia simple or sparingly branched, the branchlets tending to diverge becoming antler-like, hollow inside, (2-)3-5(-10) cm tall, 0.3-1.5(-3) mm thick, esquamulose, with pointed apices, rarely with irregular small cups proliferating from margins, ash grey to whitish grey, sometimes with a greenish or brownish tinge, slightly melanotic at base, fully ecorticate or rarely corticate only at the very base, farinose-sorediate for most of their length, the soredia 20-50 μm in diam. Apothecia rare, terminal or along the margins of cups, brown, convex. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia rare, usually terminal on tips of podetia, with a colourless jelly. Conidia bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid complex.
Note: a cool-temperate to subarctic lichen found on mineral acidic soil on track sides and in clearings of light forests and heaths, more rarely on rotting wood or at the base of trunks, in upland areas. For the differences towards C. rei see Pino-Bodas & al. (2010b).
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (27291)
2003/02/15


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8467], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, 32°45.699’ N, 17°8.051’ W, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8467], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, 32°45.699’ N, 17°8.051’ W, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8467], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, 32°45.699’ N, 17°8.051’ W, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8467], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, 32°45.699’ N, 17°8.051’ W, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17286], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Rems-Murr-Kreis, Stetten im Remstal, Haldenbachtal, Wegrand im Nadelwald. Leg. Erich Putzler 05.04.1950, det. J.Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19490], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, NW von Baiersbronn, ca. 2 km oberhalb Obertal. 48.54692° N, 8.27071° E, 720 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19490], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, NW von Baiersbronn, ca. 2 km oberhalb Obertal. 48.54692° N, 8.27071° E, 720 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19490], Germany, Schwarzwald, Kreis Freudenstadt, NW von Baiersbronn, ca. 2 km oberhalb Obertal. 48.54692° N, 8.27071° E, 720 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 6.9.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8467], Portugal, Madeira, Rabacal, Lorbeerwald bei 25 Fontes, 32°45.699’ N, 17°8.051’ W, 1069 m. Leg. Schumm 12.04.2001, det. Aptroot 2010.,
HPTLC in den Laufmitteln A, B’ und C nach Säurebehandlung bei Tageslicht und 366 nm UVLangwelle. 1: Start, 4: Position von Norstictinsäure 7: Position von Atranorin pr: Protocetrarsäure fpr: Fumarprotocetrarsäure



Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Clearwater Valley 2014-04-00 On rock in waterfall sprayzone


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA