Cladonia symphycarpa (Flörke) Fr.

Nov. Sched. Crit. Lich. Suec., 8-9: 20, 1826. Basionym: Capitularia symphycarpa Flörke in Weber - Beitr. Naturk., 2: 281, 1810.
Synonyms: Cladonia dahliana Kristinsson; Cladonia hungarica (Vain.) Szatala
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & Marini 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, Nascimbene 2008b, Spitale & Nascimbene 2012, Bilovitz & al. 2014b), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Brackel 2013, Gheza 2015), Piem (Gheza 2015), VA (Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera & al. 2003, Ravera & al. 2006, Poponessi & al. 2014), Laz (Brackel 2015), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Caporale & al. 2008, Brackel 2020). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl.
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, persistent and forming mats, the squamules large, (3-)4-6 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, horizontally spreading, with recurved margins, grey-green above (often brownish at tips), sometimes pruinose, white beneath, the margins often darkened with a violet hue. Podetia rather rare, to 1 cm tall, hollow inside, bluish- to olive-green, cupless, simple or branching toward the apex and terminating with apothecia, or with irregular small cups, with a verruculose-areolate, fissured cortex. Apothecia very rare, dark brown, larger than the tips of podetia, often clustered. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark brown to black, semi-immersed, often occurring on the primary squamules, with a colourless jelly. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests and chemistry: seven main chemotypes (all of them C-, KC-, UV-): 1) K+ yellow turning red, P+ yellow (atranorin, norstictic and connorstictic acids), 2) K+ yellow turning red, P+ yellow (atranorin, bourgeanic and norstictic acids); 3) K+ yellow, P+ yellow (atranorin and psoromic acid), 4) K+ yellow, P–(atranorin, rangiformic acid and inconstant zeorin), 5) K+ yellow, P+ red (atranorin, fumarprotocetraric, rangiformic acids, and inconstant zeorin, 6) K+ yellow slowly turning red, P+ red (atranorin, fumarprotocetraric, norstictic and rangiformic acids), 7) K+ yellow slowly turning red, P+ red (fumarprotocetraric, norstictic and rangiformic acids). Chemotype 1) is the most frequent.
Note: a widespread holarctic species found on calcareous ground in dry grasslands or on the top of exposed calcareous boulders, certainly occurring also throughout southern Italy.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rare
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: rather rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rather common
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (12982)
2001/12/09



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34396)
2001/12/09


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Cladonia symphycarpia



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36837)
2008.02.25



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16552], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Heidenheim, östlich von Söhnstetten an der Abzweigung zum Dudelhof. 48,66772° N, 10,00954° E, 570 m. In Kalktrockenwiese zwischen Kalkblöcken. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.07.2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4698], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Laichingen, Kalkblöcke in Steppenheide nahe der Laichinger Tiefenhöhle, ca. 755 m, TK 7524. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 08.1978
at: atranorin, no: norstictic acid, cno: connorstictic acid


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38707



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38720


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Tuenno, 1100 m
06/2017
fertile specimen


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Brescia, Borno, 1800 m
08/2011


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Urgnano, Basella, 193 m
04/2019


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Bergamo, Urgnano, Basella, 193 m
04/2019