Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil., 1, 1: 31, 1823. Basionym: Cladonia pyxidata (unranked) verticillata Hoffm. - Deutschl. Fl., 2: 122, 1796.
Synonyms: Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti; Cladonia cervicornis var. verticillata (Hoffm.) Flot.; Cladonia verticillata var. evoluta (Th. Fr.) Stein
Distribution: N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umb (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar (Nöske 2000). S - Camp, Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Romano 1997, Caniglia & al. 2005, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, the squamules persistent or ephemeral, very variable in size, to 6 mm long and 4 mm broad, wedge-shaped or lobed, with indented margins, often ascending, upper surface grey-green to brownish in sun-forms, lower surface grey. Podetia frequent, greenish grey to brown in sun-forms, to 8 cm tall, 0.5-3 mm thick, flaring quickly into short, broad cups (up to 9 mm diam.), which tend to proliferate from the centre, often giving rise to several tiers of superimposed cups. Cortex more or less continuous to areolate, clearly maculate, the areoles smooth, subcontiguous. Apothecia infrequent, brown, convex, small. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, common at margins of apical cups, subglobose to ovoid, sessile, with a colourless jelly. Conidia bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: substances of the fumarprotocetraric acid complex.
Note: a boreal-montane to subarctic-subalpine, circumpolar lichen found on acid soil in open habitats, most frequent in upland areas. Records from lowland areas of central and southern Italy should be checked against C. cervicornis.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[15800], Australia, Western Australia, 75 km south of Mt. Chudalup, wetland with Agonis junipera and Eucalyptus marginata, growing on sunny rocks, 34.73380° S, 116.08760° E, 75 m. Leg. F. Schumm & E. Stocker-Wörgötter, 24.10.2009, det. T. Ahti 2011.


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (3328)
2001/12/04
detail of proliferating cup


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Cladonia verticillata


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[15647], Australia, Western Australia, Perth Hills, east of Perth, 31.818° S, 116,456° E, 345 m, in dry Eucalyptus forest. Leg. F. Schumm & E. Stocker-Wörgötter, 21.10.2009, det. Schumm, conf. Ahti 2011.


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[15800], Australia, Western Australia, 75 km south of Mt. Chudalup, wetland with Agonis junipera and Eucalyptus marginata, growing on sunny rocks, 34.73380° S, 116.08760° E, 75 m. Leg. F. Schumm & E. Stocker-Wörgötter, 24.10.2009, det. T. Ahti 2011.


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[15800], Australia, Western Australia, 75 km south of Mt. Chudalup, wetland with Agonis junipera and Eucalyptus marginata, growing on sunny rocks, 34.73380° S, 116.08760° E, 75 m. Leg. F. Schumm & E. Stocker-Wörgötter, 24.10.2009, det. T. Ahti 2011.


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18963], Australia, New South Wales, Glenbog State Forest, ca. 7.6 km west of Bemboka on Snowy Mountains Highway, growing on soil in Eucalyptus woodland, 800 m. Leg. M.E. Hale (66366) 19.02.1984, det. T. Ahti


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18963], Australia, New South Wales, Glenbog State Forest, ca. 7.6 km west of Bemboka on Snowy Mountains Highway, growing on soil in Eucalyptus woodland, 800 m. Leg. M.E. Hale (66366) 19.02.1984, det. T. Ahti


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18963], Australia, New South Wales, Glenbog State Forest, ca. 7.6 km west of Bemboka on Snowy Mountains Highway, growing on soil in Eucalyptus woodland, 800 m. Leg. M.E. Hale (66366) 19.02.1984, det. T. Ahti


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[15647], Australia, Western Australia, Perth Hills, east of Perth, 31.818° S, 116,456° E, 345 m, in dry Eucalyptus forest. Leg. F. Schumm & E. Stocker-Wörgötter, 21.10.2009, det. Schumm, conf. Ahti 2011.,
p: protocetraric acid, f: fumarprotocetraric acid


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[18963], Australia, New South Wales, Glenbog State Forest, ca. 7.6 km west of Bemboka on Snowy Mountains Highway, growing on soil in Eucalyptus woodland, 800 m. Leg. M.E. Hale (66366) 19.02.1984, det. T. Ahti,
fpr: fumarprotocetraric acid, pr: protocetraric acid