Collema furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz

Ark. Bot. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., 22 A-3: 3, 1929.. Basionym: Synechoblastus nigrescens var. furfuraceum (Schaer.) Arnold - Flora, 64: 115, 1881
Synonyms: Collema furfuraceum Du Rietz; Collema nigrescens var. furfuraceum (Du Rietz) H. Olivier
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), TAA, Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & al. 1997, 1998, 2002c, Putortì & al. 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999b, Paoli & Loppi 2001, Frati & al. 2006b, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Nascimbene 2010, Brunialti & al. 2012b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2002¸Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1998d, 1999, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Loi & al. 2000, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Puntillo & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Potenza 2006, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & Puntillo 2009, Ottonello & al. 2011, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus foliose, homoiomerous, subgelatinous when wet, (2-)3-6(-8) cm across, closely adnate, broadly lobed. Lobes 0.5-1 cm broad, thin, (50-)60-105 µm thick, apically roounded, dark olive-green to brownish black, paler and subtransparent when wet, strongly ridged and often pustulate in young parts, covered in simple or branched, mostly terete, cylindrical isidia (globular when young) which are 0.05-0.15 mm wide and to 0.3 mm long. Lower surface dark olive-green to brownish black, paler than upper surface. Upper and lower cortices absent. Apothecia rare, 0.5-1.5 mm across, with a brown disc and a densely isidiate thalline margin. Proper exciple euthyplectenchymatous. Asci 8-spored, clavate, the apex thick, with a I+ blue apical dome and a I+ blue annulus projecting downwardly. Ascospores 4-5-septate, hyaline, bacilliform to acicular, often curved, 40-80 x 3-6.5(-7.5) µm. Pycnidia common, globose, superficial centrally but immersed marginally, on both sides of thallus. Conidia bacilliform, somewhat swollen towards ends, 4-6 x c. 1 µm, Photobiont cyanobacterial (Nostoc), in long chains. Spot tests: all negative. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic lichen found on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic mosses below the subalpine belt; more common in the past, presently confined to semi-natural, open stands, or to old plantations of Olea in humid areas, and mainly in Tyrrhenian Italy.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: cyanobacteria, filamentous (e.g. Nostoc, Scytonema)
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by isidia, or isidia-like structures (e.g. schizidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 35509



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (8842)
2001/12/04



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15168)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15168)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34178)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34178)
2008.03.06


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Degelius G. 1954. The lichen genus Collema in Europe: Morphology, Taxonomy, Ecology. Symbolae Bot. Upsal. 13, 2: 1-499.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (16208)
2001/12/07
detail of isidia