Crocodia aurata (Ach.) Link

Handb. zur Erkennt. nutz. Gew., 3: 177, 1833. Basionym: Sticta aurata Ach. - Meth. Lich.: 277, 1803.
Synonyms: Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain.
Distribution: S - Pugl, Si.
Description: Thallus foliose, broad-lobed, forming 7-15 cm wide, orbicualr to irregular rosettes. Lobes (3-)5-15 mm wide, up to 30 mm long, rounded, contiguous in marginal parts of thallus, imbricate in central parts, becoming undulate, often partly scabrid-areolate, the tips ascending and sometimes shortly and thinly hairy, bright green when wet, grey to olive-green when dry. Soralia abundant, almost exclusively marginal and linear, bright yellow, with granular soredia. Lower surface thinly tomentose, pale towards margins, darker in central parts, with bright yellow, 0.1-0.6 mm wide pseudocyphellae that often reach the margins. Upper cortex of anticlinally oriented, thick-walled hyphae; medulla bright yellow throughout. Apothecia extremely rare, submarginal, glabrous, with an epruinose disc. Asci 8-spored, Peltigera-type. Ascospores 3-septate, brown, 25-30 x 6-8 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid (Dictyochloropsis). Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla UV+ orange or salmon-pink. Chemistry: calycin, pulvinic acid, pulvinic dilactone, fernene triterpenoids.
Note: an oceanic-subtropical species of moist, warm, open forests, most probably extinct in Italy. The most recent record dates back to 1923 (Marche), with a record by Jatta from Abruzzo (Nimis 1993: 579): both records, from the eastern side of the Peninsula, being dubious are not accepted here. However, the species was also reported from warm-humid areas of southern Italy (Gargano-Puglia and Sicilia) by Flotow and Rabenhorst (Nimis 1993: 579). In southern Italy there are warm-humid sites which could have hosted this species.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Restricted to humid-warm, oceanic areas

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20901)
2002/02/23
lower surface with pseudocyphellae



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20901)
2002/02/23


Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
Herbarium: TSB 11524



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Sierra de Anaga


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Lanzarote


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 42298



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 42298



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 35867



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 35867



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 35867



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 35867



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 42298



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 42298


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife