Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 86, 1852. Basionym: Lichen canescens Dicks. - Fasc. Pl. Cryptog. Brit., 1: 10, 1785.
Synonyms: Buellia canescens (Dicks.) De Not.; Catolechia canescens (Dicks.) Anzi; Lecidea canescens (Dicks.) Ach.; Placodium canescens (Dicks.) DC.
Distribution: N - VG, Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb, Emil (Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Bouvet 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Monaci & al. 1997, Pišút 1997, Loppi & al. 1997, 1998b, 2002, 2004c, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Bacci & al. 2000, Senese & Critelli 2000, Del Guasta 2001, Lorenzini & al. 2003, Frati & al. 2007, 2008, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, Benesperi & al. 2013), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Massari & Ravera 2002, Ravera & al. 2003, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera 2008b, Genovesi & al. 2011, Zucconi & al. 2013, Genovesi & Ravera 2014b, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Monte 1993, Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Nöske 2000, Rizzi & al. 2011, Kodnik & al. 2011, Giordani & al. 2013, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2012, 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, 2004, Brackel 2011, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Ottonello 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, 2009, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014, Cataldo & Minissale 2015).
Description: Thallus crustose-placodioid, densely white-pruinose, forming 1-4 cm wide, usually orbicular rosettes, sometimes several thalli becoming confluent and covering larger surfaces. Lobes radiating, contiguous, slightly convex, rounded and often slightly broader and fan-shaped at ends, with laminal soralia at first developing from small bulges, finally bursting and irregular; soredia finely granular, greenish white to grey; lower surface usually pale, attached by medullary hyphae. Upper cortex pseudoparenchymatous, formed by vertically arranged hyphae, filled with minute crystals not dissolving in K; medulla usually white, lax. Apothecia very rare, lecideine, black, to 1 mm across, laminal. Epithecium granular, brown-black, K-; hymenium colourless, hypothecium brown or brown-black. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Bacidia-type. Ascospores 1-septate, brown, thick-walled, ellipsoid, 9-15 x 4-8 µm, Dirinaria-type. Pycnidia laminal, immersed. Conidia hyaline, simple, rod-shaped, 5-8 µm x 0.7-1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC+ pale yellow or yellow-orange, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV+ dull orange. Chemistry: cortex with atranorin and often chloroatranorin, medulla with diploicin (major), and other minor compounds.
Note: a rather western and southern lichen in Europe, found on a wide variety of substrata including base-rich or eutrophicated bark, calciferous sandstone, and limestone, sometimes also found in underhangs of calcareous rocks protected from rain; rare in northern Italy and along the eastern side of the Peninsula. All records from Piemonte (see Nimis 1993: 277) and Valle d'Aosta (see Piervittori & Isocrono 1999: 119), being dubious, are not accepted here. See also note on D. subcanescens.
Growth form: Crustose placodiomorph
Substrata: bark and rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31403)
2001/11/26



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31403)
2001/11/26



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14683)
2001/11/23



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14683)
2001/11/23
detail of soredia



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38226)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38226)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38226)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38227)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38227)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38227)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (21770)
2008.03.06



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16352], Mallorca (Süd): Nationalpark; 39,34322° N, 3,16764° E, 40 m. Leg. Schumm, Frahm & Lüth 12.03.2010, det. Schumm 2010.


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands


Nere Sorrentino
Spain


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Manuel Gil
Spain, Canary Islands, Lanzarote, La Triguera