Diploschistes actinostoma (Ach.) Zahlbr.

Hedwigia, 31: 34, 1892. Basionym: Verrucaria actinostoma Pers. ex Ach. - Lichenogr. Univ.: 288, 1810.
Synonyms: Acrorixis actinostoma (Ach.) Trevis.; Diploschistes sbarbaronis B. de Lesd.; Limboria actinostoma (Ach.) A. Massal.; Limboria actinostoma var. basalticola A. Massal.; Limboria actinostoma var. trachytica A. Massal.; Urceolaria actinostoma var. basalticola (A. Massal.) Jatta; Urceolaria actinostoma var. trachytica (A. Massal.) Jatta
Distribution: N - VG, Ven (Lazzarin 2000b), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Panfili 2000, 2003, Ravera & al. 2006, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Monte 1993, Rizzi & al. 2011, Terribile & al. 2012, Giordani & al. 2013, Cossu & al. 2015, Neuwirth 2018). S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Poli & al. 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, well-delimited and forming large patches, rimose-areolate, consisting of 0.5-1.5 mm wide and up to 1.5 mm thick, irregularly angular, flat to slightly convex, whitish grey to grey, smooth, epruinose areoles. Apothecia common, perithecioid, immersed in the thallus, usually 1 per areole, up to 3 mm in across (in section), with a blackish, urceolate to finally flat disc not visible from above, being concealed by a thick, radially sulcate proper margin. Proper exciple up to 70 µm thick, carbonized, pseudoparenchymatous; epithecium poorly differentiated, colourless to brownish; hymenium colourless, 120-160 µm high, non-amyloid; paraphyses flexuose, 1-1.5 µm thick, not swollen at apex; hypothecium colourless, 10-15 µm high. Asci 4-6(-8)-spored, cylindrical to subclavate, the wall evenly thickened, with an abrupt apical thickening and a thin internal apical beak, lacking an apical apparatus, the contents I+ orange-red, the walls I-, not fissitunicate. Ascospores muriform, with 4-6 transverse and 1-3 longitudinal septa, at first hyaline but soon turning brown, ellipsoid, 16-32 x 10-20 µm. Pycnidia black, immersed. Conidia bacilliform, 4-7 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C+ red, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: lecanoric acid (major), diploschistesic and orsellinic acids (minor).
Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on basic siliceous substrata, incl. roofing tiles, more rarely on porous, weakly calciferous rocks, most frequent and abundant in Tyrrhenian Italy, rarer in the eastern part of Peninsular Italy, where it is also found on limestone. The specific epithet is usually misspelled as “actinostomus”, but it is a name, not an adjective, meaning “a mouth with rays” (Arcadia 2016).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

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4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

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4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

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3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

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5





P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (21177)
2001/12/09



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19009], Australia, Queensland, Brisbane area, Esk Shire, 5 km S of Toogoolawah, on W-exposed granite outcrops in pasture. Leg. H.T. Lumbsch (5669b), 22.09.1987, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 154



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19010], Australia, New South Wales, Stroud-Gloucester Road, 37 km S of Gloucester, 32°20' S, 151°55' E, 80 m, on volcanic rocks in dry sclerophyll forest on steep rocky westerly slope. Leg. J.A. Elix (27480) & H. Streimann, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 228



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19010], Australia, New South Wales, Stroud-Gloucester Road, 37 km S of Gloucester, 32°20' S, 151°55' E, 80 m, on volcanic rocks in dry sclerophyll forest on steep rocky westerly slope. Leg. J.A. Elix (27480) & H. Streimann, det. H.T. Lumbsch. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 228



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 31325



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11599



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11599



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11599



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11599



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 31325