Diploschistes scruposus (Schreb.) Norman

Nytt Mag. Naturvid., 7: 232, 1853. Basionym: Lichen scruposus Schreb. - Spicil. Fl. Lips.: 133, 1771.
Synonyms: Diploschistes gypsaceus subsp. interpediens (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Diploschistes interpediens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.; Diploschistes ptychochrous Lettau; Diploschistes scruposus f. centrosus Werner; Diploschistes scruposus f. flavescens Zahlbr.; Diploschistes scruposus subsp. ptychochrous (Lettau) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Diploschistes scruposus subsp. violarius (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Diploschistes scruposus var. clauzadei B. de Lesd.; Diploschistes violarius (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b, 2008b, Brackel 2013), Lomb (Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Brackel 2010), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004, Matteucci & al. 2015c), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Marc, Umb (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli 1997b, Genovesi & al. 2011, Brackel 2015), Abr, Sar (Nöske 2000, Rizzi & al. 2011, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Czeczuga & al. 1994, 1999, Poli & al. 1995, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Brackel 2008b, Ottonello & al. 2011, Cataldo & Minissale 2013).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, rimose-to verrucose-areolate, grey or greenish to brownish grey, scabrid, dull, epruinose, sometimes with a white prothallus, consisting of irregularly angular, 0.4-1.5 mm wide and up to 3.5 mm thick, contiguous, flat to convex areoles. Apothecia urceolate, semi-immersed to sessile, up to 3.5 mm across, with a black, usually slightly white-pruinose, concave disc, and a thick, raised proper margin. Proper exciple blackish, up to 75 µm thick laterally, pseudoparenchymatous; epithecium poorly differentiated, colourless to brownish; hymenium colourless, (90-)100-125(-140) µm high, non-amyloid; paraphyses simple, 1-2 µm thick, the apical cells not swollen; hypothecium colourless, 10-15 µm high. Asci (4-)8-spored, narrowly clavate to subcylindrical, the wall evenly thickened when mature, the somewhat abrupt apical thickening with a thin, internal apical beak, lacking any apical apparatus, the contents I+ orange-red, the walls I-, not fissitunicate. Ascospores muriform, with 4-7 transverse and 1-3 longitudinal septa, at first hyaline then turning brown, broadly ellipsoid, (20-)25-40 x 10-20 µm. Pycnidia immersed, crateriform. Conidia bacilliform, 4-6 x 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, K+ yellow, or K+ yellow turning violet red-brown, C+ red, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: lecanoric acid (major), diploschistesic acid (major or absent).
Note: a widespread holarctic lichen found on siliceous rocks, more rarely on soil, with a wide altitudinal range. Formerly frequently confused with similar species. The species, in its present circumscription, seems to be heterogeneous (see Fernández-Brime & al. 2013).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12321], Griechenland, N-Samos, südlich Avlakia an der Straße oberhalb Vourliotes beim Kloster M. Vronda, 37°48'N, 26°51'E, 490 m; Glimmerschiefergebiet. Leg. Schumm, Düll, Maier 03.05.2006, det. Schumm 2006.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (7374)
2001/11/24


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italia, Toscana, Selva di Malano
2010



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12321], Griechenland, N-Samos, südlich Avlakia an der Straße oberhalb Vourliotes beim Kloster M. Vronda, 37°48'N, 26°51'E, 490 m; Glimmerschiefergebiet. Leg. Schumm, Düll, Maier 03.05.2006, det. Schumm 2006.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12321], Griechenland, N-Samos, südlich Avlakia an der Straße oberhalb Vourliotes beim Kloster M. Vronda, 37°48'N, 26°51'E, 490 m; Glimmerschiefergebiet. Leg. Schumm, Düll, Maier 03.05.2006, det. Schumm 2006.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19461], Germany, Hessen, Amöneburg bei Marburg, sonnige Basaltblöcke in einer Hangwiese kurz vor dem Ortseingang, 50.7896° N, 8.91995° E, 324 m. Leg. F. Schumm, 01.08.2016, det. F. Schumm



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38293



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38293



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 8739 subsp. interpediens



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11779



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 11779



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 21021


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.