Dirina ceratoniae (Ach.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 194, 1831. Basionym: Lecanora ceratoniae Ach. - Syn. Meth. Lich.: 361, 1814.
Synonyms: Dirina repanda Fr. non auct.; Lecania ceratoniae (Ach.) Stizenb.; Lecanora repanda Duby f. corticola Harm.; Parmelia ceratoniae (Ach.) Spreng.
Distribution: N - Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Bartoli & al. 1997), Sar (Zedda 2002, Tehler & al. 2013). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2004, Tehler & al. 2013, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Myllys & al. 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2011, Tehler & al. 2013).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, continuous to rimose-areolate, smooth to verruculose, creamy white, greenish white or pale pinkish brown, sometimes slightly pruinose, 0.1-1.5 mm thick, often delimited by a whitish prothallus. Cortex 40-60 µm thick, without crystals; medulla chalk-white, with loose, sometimes almost byssoid hyphae near the substratum. Apothecia lecanorine, sessile, constricted at base, round to angular in outline, 0.5-4 mm across, with a dark-grey to grey-black, but ususally densely white-pruinose disc, and a thick, often wavy proper margin. Proper exciple inconspicuous; epithecium brownish, with crystals visible under polarized light; hymenium colourless, often interrupted by thin, vertical, dark hyphal strands; paraphysoids unbranched or sparsely branched, 1-2 µm thick, the apical cells 2-3 µm wide; hypothecium thick, black. Asci 8-spored, clavate, bitunicate, the apex thickened with a small internal K/I+ blue ring. Ascospores 3-septate, hyaline, fusiform, straight or slightly curved, 21-26 x 4-5 µm. Pycnidia black, immersed or slightly protruding. Conidia thread-like, sickle-shaped. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K- C+ red, KC+ red, P-, UV-; medulla C-; apothecial disc C+ faintly red or C-. Chemistry: erythrin, lecanoric acid, plus an unidentified substance.
Note: D. ceratoniae and D. massiliensis have been extensively studied from the molecular point of view, with numerous samples taken all over their respective distribution areas (Tehler & al. 2013). This showed that D. ceratoniae is not only corticolous, but quite frequently saxicolous as well. Mostly, the saxicolous specimens can be morphologically distinguished from the strictly saxicolous D. massiliensis. However, there are cases where saxicolous specimens of the two species are virtually indistinguishable without DNA data (Tehler in litt.). The species is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens under the “Least Concern” category (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
Taxon bound to maritime-coastal situations

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

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5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

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5

Aridity:

(info)

1

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5

Eutrophication:

(info)

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5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

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Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

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5





P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42859



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38231)
2008.02.25



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[20317], Spain, Balearic Islands, Mallorca, Peninsular Formentor, Mirador de la Creueta, 3.4 km northeast of the harbour of Las Palmeras, 39°55'43.8'' N, 3°06'37.3'' E, 230 m, isolated Ephedra shrubs along the panoramic path, on Epedra fragis. Leg. H. Mayrhofer (21623), 24. July 2014, det. H. Mayrofer. LICHENOTHECA GRAECENSIS NR. 450.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[20317], Spain, Balearic Islands, Mallorca, Peninsular Formentor, Mirador de la Creueta, 3.4 km northeast of the harbour of Las Palmeras, 39°55'43.8'' N, 3°06'37.3'' E, 230 m, isolated Ephedra shrubs along the panoramic path, on Epedra fragis. Leg. H. Mayrhofer (21623), 24. July 2014, det. H. Mayrofer. LICHENOTHECA GRAECENSIS NR. 450.


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südtunesien, Insel Djerba, häufig an Stammbasen von Dattelpalmen an seewindexponierten Standorten im Dirinetum ceratoniae Klem., 10 m, N-NO, pH 7.6, Küstenstreifen von Sihidi Mahrez bei Houmt-Souk. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Feb. 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti Ab Museo Botanico Berolinensi Editi Nr. 4. [2520]


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42859



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42859



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10507)
2001/11/24



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38231



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38231



P. L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43763



P. L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43763



P. L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43763