Enchylium polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin subsp. polycarpon

Fungal Divers. (online version), 64: 286, 2013. Basionym: Collema polycarpon Hoffm. - Deutschl. Fl.: 102, 1796.
Synonyms: Collema melaenum var. polycarpon (Hoffm.) Nyl.; Collema multifidum var. polycarpon (Hoffm.) Rabenh.; Collema orbiculare (Schaer.) Tonglet; Collema stygium auct.; Collema stygium var. orbiculare (Schaer.) Rabenh.; Collemodium polycarpoides Nyl.; Lathagrium orbiculare (Schaer.) Arnold; Leptogium polycarpoides (Nyl.) Harm.; Parmelia stygia var. orbicularis Schaer.; Synechoblastus orbicularis (Schaer.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Synechoblastus polycarpus (Hoffm.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nimis 1994, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2008b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, Spitale & Nascimbene 2012), Lomb, Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2004, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Genovesi & Ravera 2014). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello 1996, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2005, 2006, Gianguzzi & al. 2009).
Description: Thallus foliose, homoiomerous, gelatinous when wet, forming 2-6(-10) cm wide rosettes, deeply lobed. Lobes radiating, elongated, 1-2.5 mm wide, 0.20.3(-0.45) mm thick (when wet), contiguous, adpressed for most of their length, ascending or erect towards the center, often channeled towards apices, the tips much swollen and plicate. Upper surface dark olive-brown to black, dull, without isidia. Lower surface usually somewhat paler with tufts of white hapters. Apothecia crowded towards thallus center, terminal and marginal, sessile to stipitate, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, with a plane to slightly convex, red-brown to (rarely) black disc, and a rather thin, smooth thalline margin. Proper exciple rather thin, subpara- to small-celled euparaplectenchymatous; hymenium colourless, 65-110 µm tall. Asci 8-spored, subcylindrical to narrowly clavate, the apex thick, with a I+ blue apical dome and a I+ blue annulus projecting downwardly. Ascospores (2-)3(-4)-septate, hyaline, fusiform, with acute ends, (13-)18-28(-30) x (5-)6.5-8.5 µm. Pycnidia laminal or marginal, immersed in warts, globose, pale. Conidia straight or slightly curved, bacilliform, usually with swollen ends, 5-7 x 1-1.5 µm. Photobiont cyanobacterial (Nostoc), in long chains. Spot tests: all negative. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a widespread holarctic species found on exposed, hard, calciferous rocks and dolomite. Several south Italian records could refer to subsp. corcyrense.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: cyanobacteria, filamentous (e.g. Nostoc, Scytonema)
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Leif Stridvall http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Collema polycarpon


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[16623], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Alb-Donau-Kreis, zwischen Altheim und Gerstetten an südexponierten Kalkfelsen im Hungerbrunnental, 48.59616° N, 10.03926° E, 545 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 25.08.2010.



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[16576], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Esslingen, Neuffen, an Mauern der Ruine Hohenneuffen, 48.55492° N, 9.39356° E, ca. 710 m. Leg. et det. Schumm 12.08.2010


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall -Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/


Degelius G. 1954. The lichen genus Collema in Europe: Morphology, Taxonomy, Ecology. Symbolae Bot. Upsal. 13, 2: 1-499.


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 5746



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 31846


Degelius G. 1954. The lichen genus Collema in Europe: Morphology, Taxonomy, Ecology. Symbolae Bot. Upsal. 13, 2: 1-499.