Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray

Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London), 1: 397, 1821. Basionym: Lichen tenax Sw. - N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., 4: 249, 1784.
Synonyms: Collema ceranoides Borrer; Collema concinnum Flot.; Collema crispum var. prasinum (“Ach.”) Duby; Collema crustaceum Kremp.; Collema euganeum A. Massal.; Collema intestiniforme Rabenh.; Collema meliteum Jatta; Collema meliteum var. conglomeratum Jatta; Collema molybdinum Körb. et auct. p.p.; Collema obscurum Hoffm.; Collema pulposum auct.; Collema pulposum var. corallinum A. Massal.; Collema subcorallinum Degel.; Collema submarginale (Wulfen) Ach.; Collema subpulposum Nyl.; Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach.; Collema tenax var. ceranoides (Borrer) Degel.; Collema tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel.; Collema tenax var. crustaceum (Kremp.) Degel.; Collema tenax var. diffractoareolatum (Schaer.) Degel.; Collema tenax var. expansum Degel.; Collema tenax var. vulgare (Schaer.) Degel.; Collema turgidum sensu Hepp; Lichen palmatus sensu Ach.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Tomasi 2007, Obermayer 2013), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000b, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, Nascimbene 2008b, Hafellner & al. 2012, Brackel 2013), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1998, 2004b), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Brackel 2020), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Altieri & al. 2000, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Roccardi & Ricci 2006, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, 2004, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Ottonello 1996, Grillo 1998, Poli & al. 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, 2005, 2006, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, 2007b, 2009, Merlo 2004, 2004b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Brackel 2008b, 2008c, Liistro & Cataldo 2011, Cataldo & Minissale 2013, 2015).
Description: Thallus foliose, homoiomerous, gelatinous when wet, dark olive-green to brownish black, thick. Lobes 1-2(-5) mm broad, elongate, smooth, very variable in shape, from subterete and ascending, to concave, flattened or convex and adpressed to the substratum, with or without granulose isidia. Upper and lower cortex absent. Apothecia frequent, lecanorine, sessile, up to 4 mm diam. Disc brown to black; margin distinct, thick, smooth. Exciple euthyplectenchymatous; epithecium brownish; hymenium colourless, I+ blue; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched, with clavate to subglobose tips; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, the apex thick, with a I+ blue apical dome and a I+ blue annulus projecting downwardly. Ascospores 3-septate to usually submuriform, slightly constricted at septa, hyaline, ellipsoid, 15-25 x 6.5-13 µm.. Pycnidia common, globose, pale with a darker apex, appearing as small reddish dots. Conidia straight, slightly swollen at tips, 4.5-6 x 1-5-2 µm. Photobiont cyanobacterial (Nostoc, in long chains). Spot tests: all negative. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a widespread holarctic, almost cosmopolitan lichen found on calciferous or base-rich siliceous soil in open habitats (e.g. in dry grasslands), on consolidating sand dunes and on terricolous bryophytes, more rarely directly on rock, often found also in disturbed habitats such as track sides in urban settlements (e.g. in the very centre of Rome); an extremely polymorphic and ecologically wide-ranging species, certainly the most common of the genus in Italy.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: cyanobacteria, filamentous (e.g. Nostoc, Scytonema)
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather common
Subalpine belt: common
Oromediterranean belt: very common
Montane belt: extremely common
Submediterranean belt: extremely common
Padanian area: rather rare
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely common
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti Valdarnese
2010



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14462)
2001/12/04



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20971)
2001/12/04
var.ceranoides



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14462)
2001/12/04
wet state



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38393)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38393)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38393)
2008.02.25



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38393)
2008.02.25



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti Valdarnese
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19654], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ostalbkreis, auf dem Schönberg zwischen Wißgolding und Tannweiler, sonnige Wachholderheide, auf am kalkreicher Erde; TK 7224/4; 48°44.130’ N, 9°49.786’ E, 628 m. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 31.7.2017.



Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
Near Hope Bay, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Canadaries, CanadaIsland, British Columbia, Canada
19.07.2014


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Nere Sorrentino


Degelius G. 1954. The lichen genus Collema in Europe: Morphology, Taxonomy, Ecology. Symbolae Bot. Upsal. 13, 2: 1-499.


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.