Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.

Descr. Adumbr. Muscor. Frond., 2: 56, 1789.
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon glomeruliferum A. Massal.; Dermatocarpon pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi; Dermatocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Arnold; Endocarpon adnatum (Nyl.) Nyl.; Endocarpon garovaglii (Mont.) Schaer.; Endocarpon glomeruliferum (A. Massal.) Trevis.; Endocarpon sorediatum (Borrer) Hook.; Endocarpon subnitescens (Nyl.) Nyl.; Endocarpon trapeziforme (J. König) Trevis. non auct.; Endopyrenium pusillum (Hedw.) Körb.; Leightonia pusilla var. glomerulifera (A. Massal.) Garov.; Verrucaria subscabridula Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Brackel 2013), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000b), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Passauer 1976). C - Tosc (Brackel 2015), Umb (Genovesi 2003b, 2011, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz (Genovesi & al. 2011), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Poli & al. 1998, Grillo & al. 2001, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, 2006, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2005, Ottonello & al. 2011, Cataldo & Minissale 2013, 2015).
Description: Thallus squamulose, heteromerous, pale greenish grey to brownish when dry, green when wet. Squamules 0.5-2(-3) mm broad, 0.15-0.25 mm thick, usually weakly to deeply lobed, convex, smooth, scattered to contiguous, notimbricate, fully adnate or rarely with a slightly up-turned margin. Lower surface black, with conspicuous black rhizines anchoring and linking the squamules, and colourless to dark rhizohyphae; rhizines moderately to richly branched, to several mm long, with a carbonaceous envelope and a colourless core. Upper cortex pseudoparenchymatous, 30-70 μm thick, overlain with an epinecral layer; lower cortex more or less paraplectenchymatous in upper part, brown-black; medulla white, subparaplectenchymatous, composed of rounded cells. Perithecia frequent, subglobose, fully immersed, up to 0.4 mm across, without involucrellum. Exciple brown-black to black throughout, 20-30 μm thick; paraphyses absent, substituted by periphyses; hymenial algae subglobose to ellipsoid-oblong; hymenium colourless, I+ brown-red. Asci (1-)2-spored, bitunicate, thick-walled, clavate to cylindrical-clavate, bi- and fissitunicate, thin-walled, the wall non-amyloid. Acospores muriform, at first hyaline, then pigmented, ellipsoid, (16-)28-60(-75) x 11-26 μm, the apical spore smaller. Pycnidia immersed, to 0.3 mm across. Conidia hyaline, bacilliform, 3-5 x <1 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid (Stichococcus, present in both thallus and hymenium). Spot tests: Thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: on calcareous soil, most often in fissures of calcareous rocks; the genus Endocarpon badly needs revision, E. pusillum in the sense of most European authors is heterogeneous, and perhaps could be subdivided into several species.
Growth form: Squamulose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Poorly known taxon in need of further study

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather rare
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
5792 - Madagascar, Port Dauphin



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (6277)
2002/06/09
habitus



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35293)
2002/07/14
habitus


S. Martellos; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Piemonte, Novara, Alpe Devero, between Piedimonte and Buscaglia; altitude: 1700-2000 m..
Herbarium: TSB (23314)
2007/03/08
Undersurface of a squamule



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35293)
2002/07/14
habitus



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
5792 - Madagascar, Port Dauphin



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
5792 - Madagascar, Port Dauphin



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41771



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41771



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42408



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42408


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.