Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée

Essai Cryptog. Écorc. Offic.: 90, 1824. Basionym: Opegrapha crassa DC. in Lamarck & de Candolle - Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 312, 1805.
Synonyms: Arthonia crassa (DC.) Dufour; Chiodecton crassum (DC.) Zahlbr.; Chiodecton crassum f. atroviride Erichsen; Chiodecton crassum f. rufescens B. de Lesd.; Chiodecton crassum var. geographicum Erichsen; Chiodecton venosum (Pers.) Zahlbr.; Chiodectonomyces crassi Cif. & Tomas.; Enterographa crassa f. geographica (Erichsen) Almb.; Enterographa crassa f. pallidocincta (Erichsen) Almb.; Enterographa crassa f. rufescens (B. de Lesd.) Erichsen; Enterographa crassa var. geographica (Erichsen) Redinger; Enterographa venosa (Pers.) A. Massal.; Enterographa venosa f. atroviridis (Erichsen) Erichsen; Enterographa venosa f. pallidocincta Erichsen; Enterographa venosa f. rufescens (B. de Lesd.) Redinger; Enterographa venosa var. geographica (Erichsen) Erichsen; Leucodecton crassum (DC.) A. Massal.; Lichen obscurus Sm. & Sowerby non Ach. nec Humb.; Porina aggregata Ach. non P.M. McCarthy & Harada; Sagedia aggregata (Ach.) Fr.; Sagedia aggregata var. rupestris Bagl.; Sagedia crassa (DC.) A. Massal.; Stigmatidium crassum (DC.) Duby; Stigmatidium obscurum (Sm. & Sowerby) Spreng.; Verrucaria obscura (Sm. & Sowerby) Borrer
Distribution: N - Ven, Lomb (UME-47419), Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 1998, Watson 2014). C - Tosc, Laz (Tretiach 1993, Ravera 2006c, Munzi & al. 2012), Sar (Zedda 2002, 2002b). S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Tretiach 1993, Puntillo & Vezda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo & Puntillo 2012).
Description: Thallus crustose, continuous, smooth or faintly rimose-cracked, grey to dark olive-brown, often delimited from conspecific thalli by a dark prothallus, forming extended mosaics. Apothecia deeply immersed in the thallus, at first punctiform, then elongate and lirelliform, 0.1-0.3 x 0.05-0.01 mm, brown-black, without a distinct margin. Proper exciple very thin, brownish, not extending below the hymenium; epithecium brown; hymenium colourless I+ wine-red; paraphyses 0.8-1 μm thick, branched in upper part and anastomosing, conglutinated, not swollen at tips; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical to cylindrical-clavate, fissitunicate, with a short ocular chamber surrounded by a thin, K/I+ dark blue ring. Ascospores (1-)3(-6)-septate, hyaline, fusiform, straight or slightly curved, 25-38 x 4-6 μm, rather thick-walled, without a perispore. Pycnidia frequent, immersed, the wall colourless or pale brown in upper part. Conidia 1-celled, hyaline, cylindrical to bacilliform, 4-6 μm long. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C- KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus with confluentic acid.
Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical epiphytic lichen found on smooth bark in riparian, open, humid-warm woodlands below the montane belt; mainly Tyrrhenian, probably extinct in northern Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Enrique Rubio - Centro de Estudios Micológicos Asturianos centrodeestudiosmicologicosast@gmail.com
Spain, Salas-Asturias, La Granja, on Tilia sp.
26.06.2021



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20008)
2001/11/24



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



D. Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Marta González García & Enrique Rubio - Centro de Estudios Micológicos Asturianos centrodeestudiosmicologicosast@gmail.com
Spain, Salas-Asturias, La Granja, on Tilia sp.


Marta González García & Enrique Rubio - Centro de Estudios Micológicos Asturianos centrodeestudiosmicologicosast@gmail.com
Spain, Salas-Asturias, La Granja, on Tilia sp.


Marta González García - Centro de Estudios Micológicos Asturianos centrodeestudiosmicologicosast@gmail.com
Spain, Salas-Asturias, La Granja, on Tilia sp.
26.06.2021


Marta González García - Centro de Estudios Micológicos Asturianos centrodeestudiosmicologicosast@gmail.com
Spain, Salas-Asturias, La Granja, on Tilia sp.
26.06.2021



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
(2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3