KEYS TO THE LICHENS OF ITALY - 14) RINODINA (with Dimelaena, Endohyalina, Phaeorrhiza, and Rinodinella)
H. Mayrhofer & P.L. Nimis
Apparatus of images: Andrea Moro - Software and databases: Stefano Martellos

This is a key to all species of Rinodina and related genera (see below) known to occur in Italy (Nimis 2016), plus a few species known from neighbouring territories (see e.g. Giralt 2001, Nimis & al. 2018) for a total of 102 infrageneric taxa. The key includes the following genera:
1) Rinodina (Ach.) Gray- Comprising c. 300 species, this cosmopolitan genus is widely distributed in both Hemispheres, from polar to tropical latitudes. Rinodina-species usually have crustose thalli, lecanorine apothecia, 2-celled brown ascospores with inner wall thickenings, and Bacidia- or Lecanora-type asci. The most important character complexes are those of the proper exciple, ascospores and asci. Nadyeina & al. (2010), besides accepting the segregation of some species in the resurrected genus Endohyalina, suggest that both exciple-type and ascospore characters are rather dynamic in the evolution of Rinodina-species, and only appear consistent in foliose and fruticose groups of the Family. Classical morphological and anatomical characters should thus be re-evaluated and supported by other parameters for a new generic delimitation within the Physciaceae. The saxicolous species of Europe were monographed by Mayrhofer & Poelt (1979), and at world level by Mayrhofer (1984). The species of the Iberian Peninsula were treated by Giralt (2001). Important information was provided by Giralt & Mayrhofer (1994, 1994b, 1995), Giralt & Matzer (1994), Giralt & al. (1994, 1995), Giralt & Llimona (1997), Mayrhofer & Moberg (2002), Mayrhofer & Sheard (2007), van den Boom & al. (2009), and Sheard (2010).
2) Endohyalina Marbach, based on species formerly belonging to the Rinodina ericina-group, is characterised by crustose, autonomous or obligately lichenicolous thalli, lecideine apothecia with a hymenium often more or less inspersed with oil droplets, a brown hypothecium, Bacidia-type asci, small Dirinaria-type ascospores developing with type B ontogeny, bacilliform conidia, and by diploicin as the major secondary metabolite. The genus is closely related to Diploicia; for further details see Giralt & al. (2010) and Nadyeina & al. (2010).
3) Phaeorrhiza H. Mayrhofer & Poelt is a small genus of 2 species, which was segregated from Rinodina by the presence of rhizohyphae which fasten the almost foliaceous thallus to the substratum, the type of ascospores and the variability of the apothecial margin. The genus seems to be monophyletic (Grube & Arup 2001).
4) Rinodinella H. Mayrhofer & Poelt was segregated from Rinodina on the basis of the very thin-walled, pale brownish coloured ascospores. It currently comprises 6 species, 2 of which occur in Europe. Finally,
5) Dimelaena Norman is a subcosmopolitan genus of c. 8 species, which was segregated from Rinodina on the basis of the placodioid thalli and unthickened spore walls. However, several morphological, chemical and molecular studies have shown that D. radiata is closely related to Buellia tesserata, so that both taxa should be recognised under the same generic name (either Buellia or Dimelaena), depending on the phylogenetic position of the type species, D. oreina.
Recently, Kondratyuk & al. (2021) have split Rinodina into several other genera, such as Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Kudratovia and Oxnerella which, pending further study, are not accepted here.


Giralt M. 2001. The Lichen genera Rinodina and Rinodinella (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 79,160 pp.
Giralt M., Llimona X. 1997. The saxicolous species of the genera Rinodina and Rinodinella lacking spot test reactions in the Iberian Peninsula. Mycotaxon, 62: 175-224.
Giralt M., Matzer M. 1994. The corticolous species of the genus Rinodina with biatorine or lecideine apothecia in S Europe and Macaronesia. Lichenologist, 96, 4: 319-332.
Giralt M., Mayrhofer H. 1994b. Four corticolous species of the genus Rinodina (lichenised Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) with polyspored asci. Herzogia, 10: 29-37.
Giralt M., Mayrhofer H. 1995. Some corticolous and lignicolous species of the genus Rinodina (lichenised Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) lacking secondary lichen compounds and vegetative propagules in S Europe and adjacent regions. Bibl. Lichenol., 57: 127-160.
Giralt M., Mayrhofer H., Obermayer W. 1994. The species of the genus Rinodina (Lichenised Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) containing pannarin in Eurasia with a special note on the taxonomy of Rinodina granulans. Mycotaxon, 50: 47-59.
Giralt M., Mayrhofer H., Sheard J.W. 1995. The corticolous and lignicolous sorediate, blastidiate and isidiate species of the genus Rinodina in S Europe. Lichenologist, 27, 1: 3-24.
Giralt M., van den Boom P.P.G., Elix J.A. 2010. Endohyalina, the genus in the Physciaceae to accommodate the species of the Rinodina ericina-group. Mycol. Prog., 9: 37-48.
Grube M, Arup U. 2001. Molecular and morphological evolution in the Physciaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycetes), with special emphasis on the genus Rinodina. Lichenologist, 33, 1: 63-72.
Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk A.S., Farkas E., Hur J.S. 2021. Contributions to Molecular Phylogeny of Lichen-Forming Fungi 2. Review of Current Monophyletic Branches of the Family Physciaceae. Acta Bot. Hungarica, 63, 3-4: 351-390.
Mayrhofer, H. 1984. Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattungen Rinodina und Rinodinella in der Alten Welt. J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 55: 327-493.
Mayrhofer H., Moberg R. 2002. Rinodina. In: Ahti T. & al. (eds.): Nordic Lichen Flora. Vol. 2. Physciaceae. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla, Sweden, pp. 41-69.
Mayrhofer H., Poelt J. 1979. Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Rinodina in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 12: 1-186.
Mayrhofer H., Sheard J.W. 2007. Rinodina archaea (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) and related species. Bibl. Lichenol., 96: 229-246.
Nadyeina O., Grube M., Mayrhofer H. 2010. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycotina) using combined ITS and mtSSU rDNA data. Lichenologist, 42: 521-531.
Nimis P.L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. EUT, Trieste, 739 pp.
Nimis P.L., Hafellner J., Roux C., Clerc P., Mayrhofer H., Martellos S., Bilovitz P.O. 2018. The Lichens of the Alps. An Annotated Catalogue. Mycokeys, 31: 1-634.
Sheard J.W. 2010. The lichen genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) in North America, north of Mexico. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. 246 pp.
van den Boom P.P.G., Giralt M., Etayo J. 2009. Notes on the lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from the Canary Islands. Nova Hedwigia, 88, 3-4: 423-440.

Last modified: December, 4, 2023

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