Pier Luigi Nimis, Jan Vondrák
Apparatus of images: Andrea Moro - Software and databases: Stefano Martellos

In the past, generic delimitations in the Teloschistaceae were mainly based on growth-form, most of the crustose species being included into the very large and heterogenous genus Caloplaca. The last, most comprehensive attempt of a more natural subdivision in the XIX Century was that by Massalongo (1852). In recent times, with the availability of molecular data, the generic subdivision has been re-defined, with the recognition of many new or resurrected genera, not all of which can be identified without a molecular analysis (see e.g. Arup & al. 2013). The genus Marchantiana was introduced for accomodating 5 species, characterized by the presence of neochloroemodin, from the Southern Hemisphere (Kondratyuk & al. 2014), being particularly well-represented in Australia. Søchting & Arup (2018) included into Marchantiana the European species Caloplaca asserigena, stating that it represents a case of a fairly recent migration between the two Hemispheres. Further genera, not all of which are accepted here pending a general overwiew of the entire group, have been created by Kondratyuk & al. (2013, 2014b, 2014c, 2015 etc.). Important recent papers are those of Arup (2006, 2009), Arup & Åkelius (2009), Frolov & al. (2016, 2020), Gaya (2009), Šoun & al. (2011), Søchting (1997, 2001), Vondrák (2008), Vondrák & al. (2008, 2009, 2012, 2016, 2016b, 2020).
The most comprehensive key to all species occurring in Europe is still that by Clauzade & Roux (1985). Caloplaca in the strict sense includes now only the members of the C. cerina complex. Unfortunately, only a part of the many species of crustose Teloschistaceae present in Italy, some of which are very poorly known, were assigned to the new genera, so that several species are still treated here as Caloplaca, although they clearly do not belong to Caloplaca s.str..
The present key (207 infrageneric taxa) includes all crustose Teloschistaceae known to occur in Italy (see Nimis 2016), plus several species known from neighbouring countries and to be looked for in Italy.
The part devoted to placodioid species is presently under revision by E. Gaya.


Arup U. 2006. A new taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. Lichenologist, 38, 1: 1-20.
Arup U. 2009. The Caloplaca holocarpa group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. Lichenologist, 41, 2: 111-130.
Arup U., Åkelius E. 2009. A taxonomic revision of Caloplaca herbidella and C. furfuracea. Lichenologist, 41, 5: 465-480.
Arup U., Søchting U., Frödén P. 2013. A new taxonomy of the family Teloschistaceae. Nord. J. Bot., 31: 16-183.
Clauzade G., Roux C. 1985. Likenoj de okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita determinlibro. Bulletin Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, Nr. spéc., 7, 893 pp.
Frolov I., Vondrák J., Fernández-Mendoza F., Wilk K., Khodosovtsev A., Halıcı M.G. 2016. Three new, seemingly-cryptic species in the lichen genus Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae) distinguished in two-phase phenotype evaluation. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 53, 3-4:243-262.
Frolov I., Vondrák J., Košnar J., Arup U. 2020. Phylogenetic relationships within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato and the role of pigments in its taxonomic interpretation. J. Syst. Evol., 59, 3: 454-474 (paper-printed 2021).
Gaya E. 2009. Taxonomical revision of the Caloplaca saxicola group (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota). Bibl. Lichenol., 101: 1-191.
Kondratyuk S., Jeong M.H., Yu N.H., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Elix J., Kim J., Kondratyuk A., Hur J.-S. 2013. Four new genera of teloschistoid lichens (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular phylogeny. Acta Bot. Hung., 55, 3-4: 251-274.
Kondratyuk S.Y., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Elix J.A., Kim J.A., Jeong M.H., Yu N.H., Hur J.S. 2014. A revised taxonomy of the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular phylogeny. Acta Bot. Hung., 56, DOI: 10.1556/ABot.56.2014.1-2.12
Kondratyuk S.Y., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Elix J.A., Kim J.A., Jeong M.-H., Yu N.-N., Hur J.-S. 2014b. A revised taxonomy for the subfamily Caloplacoideae (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular phylogeny. Acta Bot. Hung., 56, DOI:
Kondratyuk S.Y., Lökös L., Kim J.A., Kondratyuk A.S., Jeong M.H., Jang S.H., Oh S., Hur J.-S. 2015. Three new monotypic genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes). Mycobiology, 43, 3: 195-202.
Massalongo A. 1852. Monografia dei licheni blasteniospori. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti 2, 3, app. 3: 3-131. 6 pl.
Nimis P.L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. EUT, Trieste, 739 pp.
Šoun J., Vondrák J., Søchting U., Hrouzek P., Khodosovtsev A., Arup U. 2011. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Caloplaca cerina group in Europe. Lichenologist, 43, 2: 113-135.
Søchting U. 1997. Two major anthraquinone chemosyndromes in Teloschistaceae. Bibl. Lichenol. 68: 135-144.
Søchting U. 2001. Chemosyndromes with chlorinated anthraquinones in the lichen genus Caloplaca. Bibl. Lichenol., 78: 395-404.
Vondrák J. 2008. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Teloschistales) and its lichenicolous fungi: contributions to their taxonomy, nomenclature and biodiversity. PhD Thesis, Univ. of South Bohemia, Fac. of Science, České Budějovice, Czech Republic, 133 p.
Vondrák J., Šoun J., Hrouzek P., Řiha P., Kubasek J., Palice Z., Søchting U. 2008. Caloplaca subalpina and C. thracopontica, two new saxicolous species from the Caloplaca cerina group (Teloschistales). Lichenologist, 40, 5: 375-386.
Vondrák J., Riha P., Arup U., Søchting U. 2009. The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region; with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology. Lichenologist, 41, 6: 571-604.
Vondrák J., Šoun J., Vondrákova O., Fryday A.M., Khodosovtsev A., Davydov E.A. 2012. Absence of anthraquinone pigments is paraphyletic and a phylogenetically unreliable character in the Teloschistaceae. Lichenologist, 44, 3: 401-418.
Vondrák J., Halıcı M.G., Güllü M., Demirel R. 2016. Taxonomy of the genus Athallia and its diversity in Turkey. Turkish J. Bot., 40, 3:319-328.
Vondrák J., Frolov I., Davydov E.A., Urbanavichene I., Chesnokov S., Zhdanov I., Muchnik E., Konoreva L., Himelbrant D., Tchabanenko S. 2016b. The extensive geographical range of several species of Teloschistaceae: evidence from Russia. Lichenologist, 48, 3: 171-189.
Vondrák J., Frolov I., Košnar J., Arup U., Veselská T., Halıcı G., Malíček J., Søchting U. 2020. Substrate switches, phenotypic innovations and allopatric speciation formed taxonomic diversity within the lichen genus Blastenia. J. Syst. Evol. 58, 3: 295–330.

Last modified: April, 8, 2024

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