Deborah Isocrono, Pier Luigi Nimis, Sonia Ravera
Apparatus of images: Andrea Moro - Software and databases: Stefano Martellos

The present key, originally prepared for an online workshop organized by the Italian Lichen Society in April 2021, includes species of Alloarthopyrenia, Arthopyrenia, Julella and Naetrocymbe known to occur in Italy and surrounding areas (see Nimis 2016, Nimis & al. 2018), plus Mycoporum antecellens, which was previously often included into Arthopyrenia, for a total of 27 species. These genera are very poorly known in Italy: in spite of the recent description of 3 species of Arthopyrenia from the country (Ravera 2006, Puntillo & Ravera 2013), several species described by Italian authors of the XIX Century, such as A. cembricola (Anzi) Lettau, A. cinerescens A. Massal., A. molinii Beltr., A. parolinii Beltr., etc.) still await a critical study, and are not included in the key.
The included genera are:
Alloarthopyrenia Phukhams., Lücking & K.D. Hyde A new genus in Trypetheliaceae, based on data from analysis of combined LSU and SSU sequence data (Hyde & al. 2016), created to accommodate a single species which proved to correspond to the traditional concept of Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, the type of which is probably close to Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Thiyagaraja & al. 2021).
Arthopyrenia A. Massal.- This genus was studied in detail by Harris (1973, 1975, 1995), Tucker & Harris (1980) and Coppins (1988). It presently comprises c. 53 species, which are chiefly known from temperate regions, mainly characterized densely arranged paraphysoids developing from both ends and a K+ sordid-green perithecial wall (Hyde et al. 2013, Hongsanan et al. 2020a).
Julella Fabre - This long-neglected, subcosmopolitan genus of c. 14 species with muriform ascospores, with the highest diversity in arid tropical regions was studied by Barr (1985), Aptroot & van den Boom (1995), and Aptroot (2002). The species are non-lichenised, but occasional association with Trentepohlioid algae was sometimes reported, so that they were traditionally treated also by lichenologists. Already Harris (1995) had pointed out the close relationship between Julella and Arthopyrenia, the only difference being ascospore septation, a notion supported by other authors (Aptroot & al. 2008, Nelsen & al. 2011). Lücking & al. (in Hongsanan & al. 2020b) stated that in Julella at least two groups can be distinguished: one including the species related to the type, J. buxi, and the other with the species related to J. lactea, for which the genus name Polyblastiopsis is available. J. fallaciosa, which proved to be nested within Arthopyrenia (Thiyagaraja & al. 2021) belongs to the latter group, which implies that Polyblastiopsis would be a synonym of Arthopyrenia. Waiting for the sequencing of further species, we provisionally still leave the other species into Julella.
Naetrocymbe Körb. A genus of c. 12 species, including species which are usually non-lichenised, characterised by short-celled paraphyses with refractive bodies near the septa, obpyriform asci with a distinctive apical region lacking a nasse and short, rod-shaped microconidia; the genus has a mainly temperate/boreal distribution. Harris (1975) established Naetrocymbaceae to accommodate the single genus Naetrocymbe, transferring a few non-lichenized species to that genus and retaining Arthopyrenia, Julella and Mycomicrothelia within Arthopyreniaceae.
Several genera traditionally treated in Arthopyreniaceae were later excluded from this family and the bulk of tropical, lichenised species previously assigned to Arthopyrenia was placed in Trypetheliaceae (Hyde & al. 2013, Nelsen & al. 2014). Arthopyrenia and Naetrocymbe, in spite of their overall similarity, are included in two different families within the order Pleosporales (Arthopyreniaceae and Naetrocymbaceae, see Harris 1995, Jaklitsch & al. 2016). However, the sequencing of A. cerasi, the type species of the genus, recovered Arthopyrenia s.str. as an early diverging lineage within Trypetheliaceae, in the same clade as the temperate, non-lichenized Julella fallaciosa (Thiyagaraja & al. 2021). Therefore, Arthopyreniaceae was synonymized under Trypetheliaceae.
The species of Arthopyrenia were monographed by Keissler (1938) for Central Europe. Several species were critically revised by Riedl (1963, 1969, 1977) and Harris (1995). A general key to European species was provided by Clauzade & Roux (1985). Swedish species were treated by Foucard (1992). British species were treated by Coppins (1988); good descriptions and a key to British species are in Orange (2013).


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Aptroot A., van den Boom P.P.G. 1995. Strigula lateralis spec. nov. with notes on the genus Julella (Ascomycetes). Mycotaxon, 56: 1-8.
Aptroot A., Lücking R., Sipman H.J.M., Umaña L., Chaves J. L. 2008. Pyrenocarpous lichens with bitunicate asci: a first assessment of the lichen biodiversity inventory of Costa Rica. Bibl. Lichenol., 97: 1-162.
Barr M.E. 1985. On Julella, Delacourea, and Decaisnella, three dictyosporous genera described by J.H. Fabre. Sydowia, 38: 11-19.
Clauzade G., Roux C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita determinlibro. Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N. Ser., N. Spec. 7. Royan, 893 pp.
Coppins, B.J. 1988. Notes on the genus Arthopyrenia in the British Isles. Lichenologist, 20: 305-325.
Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Liu J.-K., Ariyawansa H., Boehm E. & al. 2013. Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity, 63: 1-313.
Hyde K.D., Hongsanan S., Jeewon R., Bhat D.J. & al. 2016. Fungal diversity notes 367-490: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity, 80: 1-270.
Keissler K. von 1938. Pyrenulaceae, Mycoporaceae, Coniocarpineae. In: Rabenhorst G L: Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 2nd, IX, Die Flechten, Abt. 1, 2. Gebr. Borntraeger, Leipzig, pp. 1-846.
Foucard T. 1992. Notes on the corticolous Arthopyrenia-species in Sweden. Graphis Scripta, 4, 2: 49-60.
Harris R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist, 12: 3-68.
Harris R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. PhD thesis, University of Michigan.
Harris R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens, including the 10ø Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Publ. by the Author, Bronx, N.Y., 192 pp.
Hongsanan S., Hyde K.D., Phookamsak R., Wanasinghe D.N. & al. 2020 Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Orders and families incertae sedis in Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity, 105, 17–318.
Nelsen M.P., Lücking R., Aptroot A., Andrew C.J., Cáceres M.E.S. & al. 2014. Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and genus-level classification within the fungal family Trypetheliaceae. (Dothideomycetes: Ascomycota). Taxon, 63: 974-992.
Nimis P.L. 2016. The lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. EUT, Trieste, 740 pp.
Nimis P.L., Hafellner J., Roux C., Clerc P., Mayrhofer H., Martellos S., Bilovitz P.O. 2018. The Lichens of the Alps. An Annotated Catalogue. Mycokeys, 31: 1-634.
Orange A. 2013. British and other Pyrenocarpous Lichens. Vers. II. August 2013.
Puntillo D., Ravera S. 2013. Naetrocymbe mori-albae, a new species from Calabria (southern Italy). Fl. Medit., 23: 5-9.
Ravera S. 2006. Two new species of Arthopyrenia from Italy. Lichenologist, 38, 1: 21-26.
Riedl H. 1963. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo I. Sydowia, 16: 263-274.
Riedl H. 1969. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo II. Sydowia, 23: 230-241.
Riedl H. 1977. Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo III. Zur Nomenklatur und Systematik von Arthopyrenia punctiformis auct. Sydowia, 29: 115-138.
Thiyagaraja V., Lücking R., Ertz D., Coppins B.J., Wanasinghe D.N., Karunarathna S.C., Suwannarach N., To-Anun C., Cheewangkoon R., Hyde K.D. 2021. Sequencing of the type species of Arthopyrenia places Arthopyreniaceae as a synonym of Trypetheliaceae. Mycosphere, 12, 1: 993-1011.

Last modified: October, 2 2022

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