KEYS TO THE LICHENS OF ITALY - 98) TONINIA and related genera (Bibbya, Kiliasia, Thalloidima, Toniniopsis; incl. Porpidinia)
Pier Luigi Nimis*
Apparatus of images: Andrea Moro - Software and databases: Stefano Martellos

The genus Toninia was monographed by Timdal (1992), and also after the segregation of Porpidinia (Timdal 2010) it appeared to be highly polyphyletic (Ekman 2001, see also Miadlikowska & al. 2014). The molecular study by Kistenich & al. (2018) split the genus Toninia in the sense of Timdal (1992) into segregates: the two new genera Bellicidia and Parallopsora, and the resurrected genera Bibbya, Kiliasia, Sporacestra, Thalloidima, and Toniniopsis.
The following genera are included into the present key:
1) Bibbyia J.H. Willis - This recently resurrected genus (see Kistenich & al. 2019) was included in Toninia by Timdal (1992) and corresponds to his species groups 4 and 8 and partly group 5. Morphologically, it is characterized by a reddish brown, K+ red pigment in the epithecium and rim of the exciple. The thallus varies from crustose to squamulose or bullate and the ascospores from ellipsoid, 1-septate to filiform, pluriseptate.
2) Kiliasia Hafellner - This genus, which was included in Toninia by Timdal (1992), includes species from his groups 1, 3, and 7. Morphologically, it is characterized by a more or less crustose thallus, although both non-lichenized and squamulose species occur. The ascospores vary from ellipsoid, 1-septate to shortly bacilliform, 3-septate.
3) Porpidinia Timdal - This genus was described to accommodate one species formerly treated as a member of Toninia. The ascus resembles that of Porpidia, but the genus differs in having a non-amyloid hymenial gel and more loosely conglutinated paraphyses with a more sharply delimited pigment cap. For further details see Timdal (2010).
4) Thalloidima A. Massal. - This recently resurrected genus (see Kistenich & al. 2019) was included in Toninia by Timdal (1992) and corresponds to his species groups 1 (except 4 species now placed in Kiliasia) and 10. Morphologically, it is characterized by the presence of a grey, K+ violet, N+ violet pigment (Thalloidima-grün’ or Sedifolia-grey’) in the epithecium and rim of the exciple, with the exception of T. toninianum (from group 10) which has an olivaceous brown to green, K-, N+ violet pigment. The thallus is mostly flattened-squamulose to bullate, but two species are non-lichenized. Most species are cyanotrophic at least when young. The ascospores are mostly ellipsoid to fusiform and 1-septate, rarely acicular and 3-septate.
5) Toninia A. Massal. - In the more restricted definition of Kistenich & al. (2018), Toninia corresponds to species groups 2, 6, 9 and partly 5 and 7 of Timdal (1992), with the inclusion of Arthrosporum and some species formerly assigned to Bacidia. The species have a green, K–, N+ violet (‘Bacidia-grün’ or ‘bagliettoana-green’) or brown, K-, N- pigment in the epithecium and exciple, and ellipsoid to acicular, (0-) 1- pluriseptate ascospores, being either non-lichenized or with a lichenized thallus varying from flattened-squamulose to bullate.
6) Toniniopsis Frey - This recently resurrected genus consists of species previously placed in Bacidia and Toninia, being morphologically similar to the latter, but differing in the generally stronger pigmentation of the exciple (see Kistenich & al. 2018).
The present key includes all species of these genera known to occur in Italy (see Nimis 2016), plus the totally unrelated Gilbertaria squalescens (see Svensson & Fryday 2022), which was formerly included in Toninia, for a total of 40 infrageneric taxa.


Kistenich S., Timdal E., Bendiksby M., Ekman S. 2018. Molecular systematics and character evolution in the lichen family Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). Taxon, 67, 5: 871-904.
Nimis P.L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. EUT, Trieste, 739 pp.
Svensson M., Fryday A.M. 2022. Gilbertaria, a first crustose genus in the Sphaerophoraceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) for Catillaria contristans, Toninia squalescens and related species. Mycological Progress, 21-90.
Timdal E. 1992. A monograph of the genus Toninia (Lecideaceae, Ascomycetes). Opera Bot., 110: 1-137.
Timdal E. 2010. Porpidinia (Porpidiaceae), a new genus for Toninia tumidula. Bibl. Lichenol., 104: 333-337.

*presently under revision by Einar Timdal

Last modified: October, 1, 2022

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