Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 265, 1810. Basionym: Lichen scriptus L. - Sp. Pl.: 1140, 1753.
Synonyms: Graphis hebraica (Hoffm.) Röhl.; Graphis limitata (Pers.) Röhl.; Graphis microcarpa (Ach.) Röhl.; Graphis scripta var. limitata (Pers.) Arnold; Graphis scripta var. spathea (Ach.) Mudd; Graphis spathea (Ach.) Röhl.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Brackel 2013), Ven (Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007, 2008e, 2013b), TAA (Philippi 1983, Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Nascimbene 2008b, 2014, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Arosio & al. 2003, Roella 1999, Anderi & al. 2005, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2007, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Putortì & al. 1999c, Lorenzini & al. 2003, Tretiach & al. 2008, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Benesperi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Brackel 2015), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Ravera & al. 2003, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Ravera 2006c, Munzi & al. 2007, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2010, Paoli & al. 2015), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Puntillo & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Etayo & Puntillo 2011, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999v), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Sérusiaux 1998, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, 2012, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Stofer 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, continuous to finely cracked, white, pale grey or brownish, dull, often delimited by a dark prothallus. Apothecia lirelliform, black, raised, oblong to linear, more or less flexuose and often with several parallel branches, rounded at ends, 2-10 x 0.2-0.4 mm, with a slit-like, non-pruinose disc hidden by a well-developed, 15-40 µm thick exciple with entire lips; pseudothalline margin often present. Proper exciple black carbonized laterally, poorly developed and not carbonized at base; epithecium brown; hymenium colourless, not inspersed with oil droplets, 90-100 µm high; paraphyses simple, dense, 1.5-2 µm thick, with brownish tips; subhymenium colourless. Asci (6-)8-spored, clavate cylindrical-clavate, non fissitunicate, dehiscent by an apical split, K/I-, Graphis-type. Ascospores: (5-)7-10(-13)-septate with lens-shaped lumina, hyaline, fusiform-cylindrical, 20-63 x 5-12 µm, I+ blue-violet. Pycnidia rare, immersed. Conidia bacilliform, 2-5 x 1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a widespread temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen found on smooth bark, mostly in deciduous forests, in humid areas also on twigs and branches, but normally on trunks, in drier areas restricted to the base of the boles. In a narrow sense the taxon is characterised by apothecia with more or less hidden disc, and a thin (<= 0.1 mm) to absent thalline margin. The species is treated here in a broad sense (see comment on the genus).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very common
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

12345

Solar irradiation:

12345

Aridity:

12345

Eutrophication:

12345

Poleotolerance:

0123

Altitudinal distribution:

123456


Predictive model
Herbarium samples


G. Incerti CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 31894



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31894)
2001/11/26



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (17705)
2001/11/24


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, UD, Comune di Sauris, Bosco della Stua presso il Lago
2008.26.08



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Bosco della Stua, Lago di Sauris, 1000m
09.09.2016



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12550], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, zwischen Wangen und Unterberken, im Fetzentöbele, Weg ‘Seesteige’, an schattiger junger Buche, 48°45.494'N, 9°34.628'E, 390 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 16.07.2007.



Juri Nascimbene
Altopiano del Canwsiglio, Regione Veneto, Prov. Treviso, Italy
2005


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (31894)
2001/11/26


Courtesy Danièle et Olivier Gonnet - Source: https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/Photos_AFL/Photos_AFL_G/Graphis_scripta.htm
France, sur écorce de bouleau - Forêt d'Hardelot - 2007 - Pas-de-Calais


Courtesy Danièle et Olivier Gonnet - Source: https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/Photos_AFL/Photos_AFL_G/Graphis_scripta.htm
France, sur écorce de bouleau - Forêt d'Hardelot - 2007 - Pas-de-Calais