Gyalolechia aurea (Schaer.) A. Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 17, 1852. Basionym: Lecidea aurea Schaer. - Naturwiss. Anz., 2: 11, 1819.
Synonyms: Caloplaca aurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr.; Candelariopsis aurea (Schaer.) Szatala; Thalloidima aureum (Schaer.) Müll. Arg.
Distribution: N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, areolate, ochraceous yellow to bright orange-yellow, epruinose, thick, forming irregular patches to 4(-6) cm, anchored to thin layers of soil in rock fissures by rhizine-like bundles of hyphae. Areoles 1-2(-3) mm broad, flattened to convex, smooth, contiguous, the marginal ones often elongate, to 2-3 mm long. Apothecia frequent, zeorine, sessile, slightly constricted at base, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm across, with an orange-brown to olive-brown, flat to slightly convex, rugose disc, and a thick, bright orange to cinnamon-red margin, soon dividing into a paler, thinner proper margin, and a thicker, but often finally excluded thalline margin. Epithecium orange, wirh a K+ red, granular epipsamma; hymenium colourless, 80-100 µm high; paraphyses mostly simple, not anastomosing; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate with an open, short (<2 µm) septum, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform, constricted at septum and with pointed ends, 12-20(-25) x 4-7 µm. Pycnidia orange-yellow, immersed. Conidia ellipsoid, 1-celled. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and apothecia K+ red, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: thallus and apothecia with parietin, emodin, small amounts of fallacinol and fallacinal; physcion present in the apothecia.
Note: a species of the mountains of Central and southern Europe, found on plant debris and mosses in fissures and cracks of calcareous rocks and dolomite, with optimum above treeline; widespread but not common in the Alps, and also occurring on the highest peaks of the central Apennines (the record from Abruzzo is the southernmost in Europe).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: common
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15375)
2001/12/18
old apothecia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (15375)
2001/12/18



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Dolomiti Ampezzane, Region of Veneto, Italy
2005



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Dolomiti Ampezzane, Region of Veneto, Italy
2005



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Dolomiti Ampezzane, Region of Veneto, Italy
2005



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy
TSB 41333



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (3455)
2001/11/22



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41333



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41333



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41333



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37149



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37149



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37150



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37150



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37150



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37150



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37150



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43806