Gyalolechia flavovirescens (Wulfen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup

in Arup & al., Nord. J. Bot., 31: 70, 2013. Basionym: Lichen flavovirescens Wulfen - Schr. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin, 8: 122, 1787.
Synonyms: Biatora flavofusca (Schrad.) W. Mann; Callopisma aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) A. Massal.; Callopisma flavovirescens f. detritum A. Massal.?; Caloplaca aurantiaca var. inalpina (Ach.) H. Magn.; Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff.; Caloplaca flavorubescens subsp. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Caloplaca flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Caloplaca flavovirescens var. dinae Sbarbaro?; Laundonia flavovirescens (Wulfen) S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur.; Lecanora erythrella (Ach.) Ach.; Placodium aurantiacum var. flavovirescens (Wulfen) Hepp; Placodium aurantiacum var. inalpinum (Ach.) H. Magn.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 2000b, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, Nascimbene & Salvadori 2008), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b, 2008b), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli 1997b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Ravera & Genovesi 2012, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Nöske 2000). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, 1998, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, 2005, 2006, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Grillo & al. 2009, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, almost continuous to rimose-areolate, well-delimited, sometimes with a black prothallus when young, pale dirty yellow to dirty yellowish orange, sometimes with a greenish tinge. Cortex cellular, 15-21 µm thick; medulla white, paraplectenchymatous Apothecia zeorine, adnate, 0.4-1.2 mm across, with a dark orange to brownish red, flat to convex, epruinose disc, a persistent to disappearing thalline margin concolorous with thallus and a proper margin which is usually slightly paler than disc. Exciple of radiating hyphae; epithecium golden yellow, granular, K+ red; hymenium colourless, 70-85 µm tall, not inspersed; paraphyses unbranched or sparingly branched in upper part, the apical cells slightly swollen; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-16(-19) x (5.5-)7-8.5(-10) µm, the septum (3.5-)4-5.5 µm thick (1/2-1/3 of spore length). Pycnidia totally immersed, the ostiole orange. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K+ red, C-, KC-, P-; apothecia C+ red. Chemistry: thallus with fragilin (major), emodin, parietin and other anthraquinones (minor); apothecia with chlorinated anthraquinones.
Note: a mainly temperate species with optimum on weakly calcareous sandstone and calciferous schists, on boulders and walls, with optimum at relatively low elevations.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICH. SEL. EXS. NR. 2294.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11898)
2001/11/13



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11898)
2001/12/18


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Via Giorgieri
12/02/2017



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Via Giorgieri
12/02/2017



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Via Giorgieri
12/02/2017



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Via Giorgieri
12/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste, Conconello
14/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICH. SEL. EXS. NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICH. SEL. EXS. NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.



Felix Schumm; Owner: Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19580], Austria, Tirolia, alpes dicti Hohe Tauern, Grube, secus viam inter Stein et casas alpinas Sudetendeutsche Hütten dictas, alt. 1800 m, ad saxa schistosa. Leg. J. Horáková & A. Vezda, 31.07.1988. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2294.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38654



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41372



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42361



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37175



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37175



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37175



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37175