Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M. Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 20: 133, 1951. Basionym: Lichen scalaris Ach. - K. Vetensk.-Akad. Nya Handl., 16: 127, 1795.
Synonyms: Biatora ostreata (Hoffm.) Fr.; Lecidea ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaer.; Lecidea scalaris (Ach.) Ach.; Psora ostreata Hoffm.; Psora scalaris (Ach.) Hook.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene 2008c, Brackel 2013), TAA (Lecid. Exs. 262: Hertel 1992b, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Brackel 2013, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2019b), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008, Loppi 2014), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020). Lig (Giordani & al. 2009, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Brackel 2008c).
Description: Thallus squamulose, of usually crowded, imbricate, geotropically oriented squamules covering large patches. Squamules up to 1.2(-2) mm wide, flat to usually convex, grey-green to brown, dull, with marginal, more or less labriform soralia bearing farinose, yellowish brown soredia; lower surface pale, largely sorediate. Upper cortex up to 40 µm thick, including an up to 15 µm thick epinecral layer, of thin-walled hyphae. Apothecia rare, up to 1.5 (-2.5) mm across, marginal, with a black, often bluish-white pruinose disc, and an entire or flexuose proper margin. Proper exciple of loosely conglutinated hyphae, greenish in outer part, colourless within, the pigmented parts K-, N+ violet, the inner part C+ red; epithecium olivaceous green, containing crystals (C+ red), K-, N+ violet; hymenium colourless, 45-60 µm high; paraphyses sparingly branched and anastomosing, the apical cells hardly swollen, without pigment cap; hypothecium pale to dark brown. Asci usually remaining immature, clavate to cylindrical, Biatora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform, 7-8 x 3-4 µm. Pycnidia up to 0.2 mm wide, sessile, black, marginal or laminal, with a dirty green, K-, N+ violet wall. Conidia bacilliform, 5-7.5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-; cortex UV-, medulla and soralia UV+ faintly white. Chemistry: lecanoric acid and unidentified substances.
Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on acid bark, especially of conifers, but also on Castanea and on lignum, incl. charred wood; much more common in northern Italy than in the mountains of southern Italy.
Growth form: Squamulose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

12345

Solar irradiation:

12345

Aridity:

12345

Eutrophication:

12345

Poleotolerance:

0123

Altitudinal distribution:

123456


Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland.
Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9088)
2001/11/25



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9088)
2001/11/25
detail of apothecia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34865)
2002/02/16


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (23590)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26523)
2008.03.06



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20728)
2008.03.06



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41577



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41577



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37314



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37314



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37312



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36857



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36857



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36857



P.L. Nimis CC BY SA 4.0
TSB 37314



P.L. Nimis CC BY SA 4.0
TSB 37314


Giovanna Potenza
Italy, Accettura 2006 Bosco di Gallipoli Cognato 700 m Q. pubescens HLUC n. 549


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/